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Full text of "Canadian Douglas fir [microform] : its mechanical and physical properties"

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, CANADA 

Ifao. AKTHTTK laHOHSN. Mioteut: W. W. COKY. D«»My MlalM<r 

PORESTRY BRANCH— BULLETIN No. 60 
K. H. CAMPBELL, Dlncter of Porntry 



CANADIAN DOUGLAS FIR 



ITS MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL 
PROPERTIES 



Prepared under the direction of J. S. Bates, Chem. E., Ph. D., 

Superintendent of the Forest Products Laboratories 

of Canada, by R. W. Sterns, B. Sc., Chief 

of Division of Timber Tests 



1^ 



PRDJTEI 



OTTAWA 
J. in LABROQUERIE TACH£ 
-> THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 
1918 



hriiHliipirer. 




Coast TyiH' Douglas Fir, Vancouver Island. 



W^W^ 




DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. CANADA 

Hon ARTHUR MRIOHKN Mini.t.r, W W CORY. Deputy Mm...., 

FORESTRY BRANCH - BULLETIN No. 60 

R. H. CAMPBELL, Dirtrtnr of F'lrrtlry 



CANADIAN DOUGLAS FIR 



ITS MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL 
PROPERTIES 



Prepared under the direction of J. S. Bates, Chem. E Ph D 
Superintendent of the Forest Products Laboratories 
of Canada, by R. W. Sterns, B. Sc., Chief 
of Division of Timber Tests 



28743-~U 



OTTAWA 

J. DE LABROQUKUIK TACHft 

PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJE8TT 

ISIS 



n'*'*'!3t)5S 



«V.'WW.. ' 



* ' • I 



i 



TABLK OF CONIKNTS 

IniriBliirlJiin 

AckniiwUilumcnt* 

('i)ni liiMiins 

M.ilirlal Imtiil 

Kt»iilts of trsl« 

Niinilicr ijf tvilt niadc .n. Ii.isiin for n-MiIln 

(imipariwiii of coast ami iiioiiniaiii t\ [h-. of Doiiulas lir.. . 

\'ariation of rciiulls . 

CompariMMi with rusiilts of prcvioiin invrstiKaiions 

'nl«r-reljtioii f strciiKth and density 

;;ilf(t of moistiiri- ii(M>n ^lrl•ll){th 
\arialiiin of pro|i<rtirs with piwition in ihi- irii 

.Material and ni<thod> 

< onchisions 

l'rc«-ntali<in of results 



I'Ai.K 

7 

H 

9 
24 

2<i 
27 
29 
29 
40 
^2 
Mi 
M 

.J6 



Appendii 



Outline of pronrair 
Merhaniral tests 
Deterniina'ions of , 
Hihlioura iiy Othi. 
I'oMUlas *!■.... 



' of *''sts. 



ileal an<l strurtural proptrties 

pulilications dealin« with the prop<Tlies and < haraderistiis ol 



60 
61 

«0 

81 



xjf^^^^^r^m 



StPi!^^- 






:m*jp. 



CANADIAN DOUGLAS FIR 

INI'UODI (IIOX 

'I'lu- tinibcr-ioiiiij; pni>;r,ni.)iic iiiulcrtakt ii liy llic IVn :,tr\ lir.mdi nf ilie 
IVpartnivtit nl tl«' Iiilfiior al tlir lorcsl I'miliuts lahoialdrirs (if Canada is 
iiitcTuled t(i iiuliidi- two ^cmr.d classes of tests:-- 

1. Tests <il tiniliers of larye -i/e as used in actual const nut inn, and con- 

taiiiini,' (k'fects such as are coninionly nut with in timlieis of this 
rhiss. 

2. Tests of small specimens', clear, slraii^ht-.urained, and free from defects. 

Tests ol the former ty|K' are useful for the purpose of in\csti,ualin.i; the 
weakeninK effect of the \ arioiis defects which occur in tinilur, ami for deter- 
miniiiK the ellu iency of various specilrc ^radin^j rules in excluding; such of these 
defe<ts as would have a material enect upon strength, thus providing data of 
v.due ill connection with the deteriiiination of suitaMe working stresses for 
\arious gradis of timber. 

Tests of the lattir type afford, however, a more reasonable basis for a 
fair comparison of the iiroperlies of different species-', and ihev have, therefore, 
been undertaken ("list, in order to jmivide as speedily as possible authentic data, 
al present eiitireh' lacking, upon which to base coniparisons of the propiTties 
ol Canadian commercial limbers. 

The purpose of this bulletin is to [iresent the results of small clear siHchiien 
tests oil Douglas fir {PsniJotsiifia nnnrmuita), the first species tested on this 
schedule, and also to describe the methods followed in making the various 
tests. These have been standardi/id and will be followed in niaknig future 
tests on other species. The present bulletin will, therefore, be introduct<iry 
to future publications which will appear from time to time as tests on other 
species are ci nipleted. This series of siH-cial studies was pnccdi-d by a study 
ol strucliiral limbers generally, embodied in Hulletin 5') of this brunch and • 
entitled " Canadian Woods for Striiclural 'limbers." 



' 2 by 2 i[h hus in cioss-sectiun 

■ Ti> obtain a t.tit mnipaiixin ol tin- proiH-rtii-s of a 
nuinhcT ol dilliTrnt ^lu■Ml■s ol llnib.-r il is isscnlial lo 
rliinin.itc all i-xlraiK-oiis l.niors whi.h niinlit h.ivi' a 
v.irymi; elfftt in ililb-ri^nl . a,-<.-». Il is wi^ll known Ihat 
Uu' prosenre of kmns. rhr. ks. cross-Krain. .mil otlit-r 
ilcfivts ikvriMsi' tlic stii.nmli of limber nialcrially. but 
tlii'ir elTcit is not ~o wt-W mnliTslooil as to be I'xailly 
t.il. uiablc. Consi-Tjin-nily i-orrc. lions i.innol bo niado 
t.n any irasunablt- Ii.ims lor tlir picscmi^ ot suv li (I'-K-tlH 

in test iiieri's. ami tl Uy«ayol avoiilinu tlnir olio t i.s 

to use matrriul in wbi» ii tlicy do not occur. 

Absolntdy clear sppciincns can only be obtained in 
small si/es in the case of many siw. ies, .uid tbe use <,f 
small siMKimens for any series of tests for wliicli il is 



■ Icsirc.l ui b, IV. 'all icsi pieces free from defects, lln-refore 
bi'. onies nei e».o> . 

Mie use iff sin.ill spe. iniens. ajiart fioni this considera- 
tion of llie eliiMin.ilion ol .blicis, b.is the luillier adv.in- 
l.iKc ol lendiioj ilMlf lo the study M tbe vaii.ilion ol the 
ploperlies ol vvo.id ol ditfeir-nt slMI. lute, as lolind in 
dilleient |ioi lions of the same Iok, .md in addilion llii. 
obvious pj.i. in.d .idv.inl.iKc tb.it test, i .m be m.ide 
ni.nc (piickly. .it less expense p)i nialeiial. and in liie.itir 
nuinbi-r, thus, on .ivit.isinn. iiilniuiizing the ellect of 
errors ami iriediicible vari.d>Ies. 

It should be noted ih.il the use of specimens whii h 
do not ciuu.iin dele.ts does nut imply the sileelion of 
ni.iteli.d ol unusn.d streniith. but rather the elimin.ilion 
ol conditunis which would redu. e the stlellKth ul the 
wtHid below noiin.il. 



ACKNOWLEDGM ENTS 

The series of tests on Canadian-grown timbers, of which the present bulletin 
is the presentation of the initial results', is modelled on a similar investigation 
of the properties of American timber species which the United States Forest 
Service has been carrying on for a number of years^ Special apparatus employed 
by the United States Forest Service in this work has been duplicated for the 
purpose of the present tests, and the specifications of that body have with very 
few exceptions been followed as closely as possible. This has been done in 
order tluit the two sets of tests might be comparable. 

Acknowledgment is hereby made of detailed information kindly furnished 
by the officers of the United States Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, 
Wisconsin, regarding their apparatus and methods of testing. 

The coast type Douglas fir timber tested as part basis for this report was 
donated by the Abbotsford Timber and Trading Company of Abbotsford, 
British Columbia, who bore all expenses incident to felling, yarding, loading, 
and preparing it for shipment. 



CONCLUSIONS 



Extensive tests, as described in detail in the following, on Douglas fir of 
the coast type and of the mountain type, from three localities in British Columbia 
and Alberta, point to the following conclusions: 

\. Canatlian-grown mountain type and coast type Douglas fir in the green 
condition have properties as shown in Tables 5 and 6. 

2. As a result of comparisons of these figures with published results of 
similar tests on Douglas fir grown south of the international boundary, it appears 
that Douglas fir grown in Canada and that grown in the United States ma\- be 
considered to be of practically identical properties. 

^. Coast type Douglas fir is stronger than the mountain type of the same 
species. Assuming that Shipments 1 and 2 tested as the basis for this bulletin 
represent approximately the two extremes of development of the species, it 
appears that there may be variations of from 20 to 30 per cent between the 
average properties of material of this species grown in different localities. 

4. Values for certain properties averaged for indi\idual trees from the 
same locality in some cases \ar\' by more than 30 per cent abo\e or below the 
average value for five trees from that locality, but variations of more than 20 
per cent :d)o\c or below the average in the case of any of the more important 
properties are unusual. 

5. ^L^terial from different positions within the same tree varies greatly 
in properties, the strongest and den.sest wood being at the periphery near the 
butt and the weakest at the heart of the tree. At certain sections greater 
variations occur from the pith to the periphery at the same height than through- 



-For description a: rr.ctho.ls ul testing m-c ApiicniJi.x to 
this bulletin. 

'Results for a larcc number of species have already 
been puhlishcl. See United States Departiiipiit of 



.Axnculture, Hulletin .No. .S.S.I. ".Mechanical I'roperties 
of WoocKs grown in the United States". Waaliiniiton, 
1917. 



out the entire length of the tree at the same distance from tiie periphery. Values 
for material from different positions within the same tree vary more than averages 
for different trees from the same locality. 

6. Strength, density, and proportion of summer-wood in general vary in 
the same manner, great strength being associated with great density and high 
proportion of summer-wood. Weak material of low density, from the region 
immediately adjacent to the pith of the tree, is invariably of more rapid growth 
than stronger, denser wood found farther out from the heart. From these 
considerations it would appear that a grading rule based on density, as visually 
indicated by the amount of summer-wood, is a promising possibility for Douglas 
fir as for certain other species, and that a clause in such a rule sp.'cifying the 
minimum number of growth-rings per inch for material of first grade would 
be of value. 

7. Decreasing the moisture content of Douglas fir results in greatly increasing 
the strength after the moisture content has been reduced below a certain value.' 
Air-drying from the green condition to a moisture content of 10 per cent, based 
on the weight of the dry wood, causes an increase in the strength of small clear 
specimens of from 20 to 200 per cent, for different strength values. 



MATERIAL TESTED 

The timber tested as the basis fpr this report comprised three distinct 
^ shipments, one of the coast type of Douglas fir, and two of the mountain type 

3 of the same .species. These are as follows:^ 

Shipment 1.— Mountain type from Morley, Alberta^. 
Shipment 2.— Coast type from Abbotsford, British Columbia^. 
Shipment 3.— Mountain type from Golden, British Columbia^ 



Shipment 1 



This shipment of mountain type Douglas fir grew on the eastern slope of 
the Rocky mountains on the Stony Indian reserve in the vicinity of Morley, 
Alberta (township 25, range 7, west of the 5th meridian). The annual rainfall 
at this point is in the neiglibourhocd of 16 inches.' The trees grew at altitudes 
ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above sea leveP on a 30 per cent to 40 per cent 
slope towards the northeast. The soil was clay loam, the undergrowth Douglas 
fir and spruce reproduction. All fi\-e trees had full tTowns and branchy stems. 



'The "fibre saturation point." This for Douglas fir 
13 given by some authorities as 23 per cent moisture 
based on the dry weight of the wood. (See L'nitcd 
States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service 
Bulletin 88. CUne and Knapp. " Properties and Uses 
of Douglas l-ir." P. .i4.) The results of rather incom- 
p.ote t"ti mi.lr !■! liii- •.•;iincc:ion ua:icr Ll.c ijie.-.cut 
investigation may be taken as confirming this value. 

'The location of these points is shown on the sketch 
map, Fig. 20. p, 25. 



■•At CalK.iry. 40 miles east of Morley and at an alti- 
tude less by 6J0 feet, the average rail all from 1888 to 
l'V07 was 16-30 inches annually, acconling to data 
supplied by the Meteorological Service of Canada. 

*In ".Mtitudes in the Dominion of Canada". James 
White. 191.S (Publication of the Commission of Conser- 
^.ilioii/. the altitude ui lail b.i...e at Moiiey Station is 
given as 4.078 feet above mean sea level. The collector 
in his notes gave the following elevations for each of 
the individual trees: Tree 1. 4.075 ft.; tree 2. 4.085 ft.; 
tree 3, 5,000 ft.; tree 4. 4.070 ft.; tree 5. 4,065 ft. 



10 

The loRs wlion sawed at the laboratories [iroved to l)e exceedingly knottj-. 
The dimensions of the trees as j;iven by the eollector are as follows: — 



Tabi.k 1.— DimcnsiDiis of tin- Five- Irtis ConiprisiiiK Slii|iiiicnt I 



Tree Ni 



I Diameter 
' at Total 

Age. i lircast lliiKlit. 

Height. I'eet. 

Inches. 



166 
105 
188 
V)2 
174 



IS 
17 
15 
i8 
15 



6J 
67 
65 
60 



Photographs of the lojjs of this shipment and of tyiiiral test sticks of fast, 
average, and slow growth, are shown in Figs. 1 to 6. 




Fig. t. — Logs of Shipment 1 at point of origin before shipment. 




Fig. 2.— ("ri)ss-sections of Trees 2, 3, 4, and 5. Shipment 1. Trees 2, ,?, and 4 at top of 
l!o!t K, 20 feet above the stump, Tree 5 at top of Bolt li, 16 feet al)ove the 

^tiinip. 




Fio. 3. — Cross-seciion of Tree 1, Shipment 1, at top of Bolts F and H, 24 and 3' feet 
above the stuinp. Note the closeness of the grain. 




Fig. 4.— Typical specimens of Mountain Type Douglas Fir, Shipment 1, sliowing tangentia 

surface of slow-, averaK'o-, and fast-growth material. 

The symbols indicate shipmont number, bolt number, and stick direction and number in the order of their 

occurrence. (See also Fig. 42 in the Appendix.) 




[FAST GROWTH^I-A-ll-2 



Fig. 5. — Kadial surfaces of sticks shown in Fig. 4. 



'hs^^tiSr w'-jaf,T 






i 

s 




Fig. 6. — Cross-sections of sticks shown in Figs. I and 5. 
ij 



14 



Snrp.viENT 2 

Shiimiont 2, coa« type Douglas fir. was tlonate.l for purposes oi these 
^sts by the Abbots ord Tin,l.r an.l Trading Cotnpany. tie tll.r havb" 
grown on the.r holdings m the southwest portion of .ov^-nship 16, east of the 
Coast mendian. close to Abbotsford. British Columbia. The trees all canu- 
from the same stand on a large flat about 100 feet above sea level « The soil 
was a well-drame.i, sandy clay loam about four feet d.H-p. un.lerlaid with gravel 
The CO lector refers to .t as l,eing an excellent agricultural ty.K- an.l notes that 
succes.sful fannmg was carried on close to the timU-r. The stand was 7S .x-r 
cent l)ougla.s hr, 22 per cent western hemlock, and 3 ,H..r cent wesu-m cedar 
wth an uncergrowth of western hemlock reproduction, ferns, devils-club 
and dense moss. I he rainfall at this point is approxin,atelv 60 inches' 
annually. 

The collector in his notes remarks that the fees selected Ix^lonf^ed to a 
much j-ounger class thar the very large trees which are found on the coast 
the latter bemg usually from three hundred and fifty vears of age to five hundred 
whereas the former were, with one exception, all untler two hundred. 

The dnnensions of the trees were ^as follows:— 

Table i.—Dimensions of the Five Trees Comprising Shipment 2 



Tree No. 


Age. 


Diameter 

at 

Breast 

i Height. 
j Inches. 


Total 
Height. 
Feet. 


1 

Clear 

Length. 

Feet. 


1 


180 

172 
176 
185 
176 


1 

34.5 

42 

26 

17 

34 


195 

210 
166 
130 

182 




2 


141 


3 


154 


4 


129 


S 


97 




137 



The logs of this shipment when sawed at the laboratory yielded a verv 
large percentage of clear, straight-grained material. The knots were all small 
and occurred for the most part only at the heart of the tr-e. 

In Figs. 7 to 13 are shown photographs of the logs of the shipment and of 
representative test sticks cut from them. 



'T.ie collector s estimate of the altitude at the point 
where the timber grew. Rail base at Abbotsford station 
.s given in "Altitudes m Canada" as 88 feet above mean 



loJI *^l',r*?? .rainfall at Abbotsford from 1880 to 
1W4 was 60- 15 inches per annum according to "The 
Femperature and Precipitation of British Columbia." 
A. J. Connor. (Publication of the Meteoroloeical Servirp 



^P'P?SS!SS?fe 



sMNKn ii i 
ooMui m 




Fig. 7.— C 



ross-section of Tree 1, Shipment 2, at top of Bolt D, 18 fm above the grouud. 




Fig. 8.-Cross-soction of Tree 2, Shipment 2, at top of Bolt F, 27 feet above the ground. 




Fio. 9.— CroM-section of Tree J, Shipment 2, at top of Bolt \, 9 feet above the ground. 




Pig. 10.— Cross-sections of Trees 4 and 5, Shipment 2, and of Tree 8, Shipment 3. 
Tre* 4 at top of Bolt E. 22 fe« above the ground. Tree 5 at top of Bolt D. 19 feet above the ground. Tree 
8 at top of Bolt D, 19 feet above the ground. 
16 



^MiAwsfWBauti^'fmi 



i^ 




Kic. tl.-Typiral Specimens of C.>ast Type Douglas Kir, Shii-mont 2. showinR tanirential 
surface of slow-, averaRC-, and fast-j!rr« th material. 

«n,l ^«^ ^.Jl Ji.K .1 '"' """'f"-'! »' >l»- 'a«lp,t growth w;i« uiuiilly at ihf ..ntre cif thr tw 
Kii. iTamI ig ) ''"•••'"'"""' "' '"" »u.nmrr-woo.l th.m i, !«^en in thU particular c a,, (Comparr 

Shipmknt .? 

Shipment .?, mountain type Douglas fir, grew on the west s-le of the Cohinr 
bia River valle>- about three miles southwest of GoUien, British Columbia 
(timlH-r l)erth No. 16, township 27, range 22, west of 5th meridian^. 

This timl)cr berth, in general, slopes steeply to the east but it is cut by 
ravines which run north and south parallel to t' e main Columbia vallev. The 
soil is fairly unifonn in quality, being mostly a coarse, gritty material containing 
a fair amount of clay. This is u.jout tweKc inches deep and is underlaid with 
gravel, lielow wliieh, at var\'ing distances at difTerert points, is the bedrock 
which is of a schisty nature. 

The stand, which was fully stocked, consisted of 80 to 85 per cent E.igelmann 
spruce (Picea Engelnmnni), the remainfler in order of frequency lieing Douglas 
fir, western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), western cedar (Thuja plicata) and 
lodgepole pine [Pinus Murrayana). The undergrowth was not apparent, being 
covered at the time of collection by snow four to five feet deep. The collector 
»■ "''nt where the soil was thinnest the trees wxic- least .straight and their 

mbs most persistent. The stand had ^leen ieverelv bu.ned twf) \ears 
..43—2 



_ 'IS .»■■'■ 



|ir(\imi>lv iincl inn^t of the s|K'( inun ir«r» wtrf sinrilu.l at tlu' Imii. All 
wi-n-. liiiwcMT, liviiijf wliin iVIIfd, 

r.'if (°f)liinil>ia vallrv in th viriiiiiv of (Aildcii ha-* a runi|.arati\t l\ i|r\ 
rliiiiatc. the aimiial priiipilaiiuii tHJiiK aliuut \X iiiilits.' Tlun' in usually a 
liiMW Mioulall and a fairly Imm wiiiitr. I\truiu-. of i(iii|H-r.iiun' <>< >nr. 

I lif linilHT IhtiIi is well waiinil liy Miuw-w.itrr totniiiK dnwn ilu' main 
I'asierK s1<i|h' uf llir vall«'\ fruni the iiinuniains almNr. Tlic M((iiidar\ wcsicrly 
sloiMs nf till- raxiiiis wliiili i in ii, hiiwtwr, rictivr <iinsidiral>l> lis, inoisiiirt 
from this sonnc. 




I-... 1.'. 



K.i'li.il siirlair (if >|n c iiiU'ji.^ -.Ihhm 



Ik 11. 



Vnv f) j,Tt.\v al an altitude of ,^,N1() feet .ilio\c siM l(\cl on a Kinlk' sIo|w 
to til. west. 'IVfi's X and ') witi- i iosi' toKi'thcr at a distance of half a mill' 
from free 6 and al aliout the same elevation. Tree 8 Kri'W on the top of a 
small ridt;e, Tree ') (.n a slight sIoik- to the west. 'Irees 7 and 10 ^rvw closf 
to one another, ahoiit three-(|uarters of a mile west oi' Trees S and <), at an 
altitude of ahoiit -♦.(KK) feet- on a M) per cent slofx' to the east. 



'At Gdiiicn tin- .ivr.iui- ;itiiiii.il 'irci iiniiitiMn ii.i'ii 
IWIJ to mn »;!-. lS4i iiulii-s .u.iirdmii t., Thi- 
T<-iiiiM-r.itiiri. anfl Prrripitatidii of British Coliimt-ii," A. 
J. Connor, il'uhtitatioti of thi' .Mt-ti-oroloRiral Scrvnf 
of Canada.) 



-Till- ^itc of Ihr 't.iiiit from uhi li thi'<. trtc; ut-re 
talifn «a> .it a n.ii-nlii.ihlv Kri..ii.r allilii.li' th.i, •''(■ 
lo«n ol (iol.li-n. K.iil l.a«i. at tiol,!™ «taion is .',.<»l.l 
fcft ,;liovi. miMli sea li-vi-l ai iiirclinu to " AltilUilfs in 
t anada." 



All 




Fl(,. 1.? — Cross-st-ction of ,iuU^ -.h.jw ii in I'i^,. 11 ,,,,,1 IJ 



•-'><7 Hi •_> ', 



20 



Tht' (liinensions of the trt-es as n'M'n l>y tlif collector were as follows: — 
Tahi.k .?. Dimensions ol tin- Kivc Tms (iMiiprisinn ShipnuMil i 





y. 

I 


Age. 
Years. 


Dianietcr 

at 

Hrcast 

Height. 

Itiihos. 


Total 

Height. 

Kfct. 


Clear 

I.enKth. 

l".fl. 


Stump 

lleisht. 

Kiet. 


6 


190-200 


i\ 


121 


40 




3 




100-170 
170-180 


49 
11 


1,?0 
99 


45 




3 


8 


i 


9 


170-180 


IS 


98 


,« 




3 


10 


260-270 


ib 


157 


U}, 




3 



The loj;s of this shipment were of fair size and good quality, yielding a 
large percentage of clear material. 

I'hotograplis of log cross-sections and typical specimens of the timber of 
this shipment are shown in Figs. 14 to 19. 



■ 


^H ■ ■ .'s^iT.' - •■ ■^■^^^r^H.'.a 


PROJECT NO.I 




Hi 


r 


Hi 


■ .^'xj^^B^w] 


SHIPMENT NO. 3 




^Vi 


1 


■ 


' •- ^^^^^^^B W 


DOUGLAS FIR 




\\\ 


t 


L 




H|nHH| 




1^ 


1 


1 


HHmcN^^B 


^I^H 




^B 


1 


1 


^^■BOLTE^H 


^^^^H 




[iS 




1 


^^^^■^_^^H 


■ 


^^^^^ 


1 


r 

k 


K 4 




^^1 


^^^^^^? 


^B«*^ 


la 

1 


■■ 




IHs^^H 


^^ 


S 



Fui. 14.— t'ri)ss-M-(tiim of Trci' 6. Shipment 3, at top of Holt IC. li foet above the ground. 




Fig. IS.-Cross-scctions <,f Tr^s 7 an<l <). Shipment i. in Ix.th cases at top of Holt E 

ii feet uliove tfie ground. 




Fig. Ifi.-Cross-scction of Tree 10. Shipment 3, at top of Bolt D, 19 feet above the 



ground. 



1 


PROJECT NO.I 

SHIPMENT 3 -DOUGLAS FIR 

REPRESENTATIVE SPEHiyENS 2-2-30 INCHES 

TAN6ENTIAL SURFACE 


1 


Hj 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■■■■H 


^^^~ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^HBt* 


___H 


Hpi 


^BBvERAGnR0WTI^3--H-S4^MMi 


MH 


£ 


I^^^MFaI dRoWTiriCT^srMllMMMMl^BI 



Fig. 17. — Typical >|xvimc-ns of Mountain Typi' Douglas Kir. Shipnieut .*, sliowing tanycntial 
surface of blow-, average-, and fast-growth material. 




Via. If*. — Radial hurfaies of s|KciiiKn^ -howii in Kig. 17. 
22 




PROJECT NO. 1 
•SHIPMENT NO. 3 <- DOUGLAS FIR . 
REPRESENTATIVE SPECIMENS 2»2 INCHES 
TRANSVERSE SECTION 




llG. 1"). — Cross-sfct ions of >|)< riiiuiis shown in I'igs. 17 anil 18. 



24 

The sketch map, Fig. 20, shows the general relative location of the sites 
upon which the three shipments grew. It will l)e seen that Shipment 2 was 
from tlie Coast region not far from the international boundary line. Of Ship- 
ments 1 and ^, the former from Morlcy, Alberta, was from the .Atlantic slope 
of the continental divide, the latter from Golden, British Columbia, from the 
Pacific slo[)e. Both grew at approximateK- the same altitude (4,000 ft.), but 
Shipment 3, from Colden, British Columbia, wliich comprised much better 
developed trees than Shipment 1 was from a site rather better watered than 
that upon which the latter shipment grew. 

The following Table (4) shows the comparative ranges of temperature, 
altitudes, and rainfalls at the three localities in question: — 

Tablk 4. -Ranges of 'IVmpiraturc, .Mtitudcs, and .\nmial i'recipitalions at Sites of Shipim-ms 

1, 2, and 3 



Ship. 

No. 



Locality. 



Morley, .Allierta 

.•\bli()tsford, British Cohimbia 
Golden, British Columbia.. . 



Altitude. 


Average 


heet 


annual 


above 


Precipi- 


mean sea 


tation. 


le%cl. 


Inches.' 


4,000 


16 


100 


60 


4,000 


18 



Mean Tkmpkratures.* 



Summer. 


Winter. 


Annual 


58 


15 


37 


61 


35 


48 


5y 


15 


39 



•FiRurcs supplii'd by the Moteorologicul Service of Canada. 



RESULTS OF TESTS 



Strength tests and determinations of physical properties made upon small 
clear specimens of the material of the three shipments of Douglas fir, described 
in the preceding section, gave results as shown in Tables 5, 6, and 8. Table 6, 
opp. p. M, gives complete results for all the various types of test" with averages 
for the three shipments, and for the individual trees of each shipment. Table 5, 
p. 26, gives averages for the three shipments, for the more important tests, 
in a fonn more convenient for reference. Table 8, opp. p. 32, shows maxima and 
minima tree and individual test values for the three shipments, together with 
the variations of these values from the shipment averages, expressed as percent- 
ages of the shipment averages. 

*A full description of the methods employed in making these tests will be found 
in the Appendix to this bulletin, p. 60. 



R 


* ; 9 a a 1 


~~ 






J^*-^^ftt^ \k£fevl^ 


>m; 


T^' 








' "^^^ IT 




-^^ 


^ 


- — 


-r 


^4 


^ 


^- 


CD 




»4:5 


2 


,' 


/- 


Y 


3E . 


'"'i'-vr^ 


^ *- 


,(. 


- 


l^^ 


^ (A 


^''fTcte' 




P^ 




^ 






p 


(i 


^^< 








m 


^^l 


n..^ 


^ 


'^ v*. 


^r^ 


; 


IL 


y 


■f1 


4/;/ 


I 


^ 


^^ 


>^^ 


y ■ 
> 


5 


^ 4 




J5aN!__^ 


M/ 


a ^ ^* 




. « 




1 


— -*2^ 




^mKv? 






3 


i 


ac5^s:^^--4iM*^ 




_J^\_^;^>'|'*C-^» ' ^^ 






^ 


\ "^ 1 






^*4 


.^^^^^^^^ r 


■ — 






^ — Tt 


— 


s 




^^^83eh 


— 


T- 




~" 1 r^~—~L~~^ 1 ! ~/ 


— 


A~A> 


» 


) a a « s t 


^^ 


I 



o 
Q 






o 
c 

.0 

J 



2(> 



Taulf. 5.— Results of Tests on Sm.ill, ("le.ir S|H-riiiuiis nf Creen l)ou({las Fir (Coast and Mount- 
ain tyiH-s) from three l.ocilities in Allierl.i and Uriii-.ti t'olumhia. 

(All stresses expressed in pounds per sm). inch.) 



Bendind (S.atlo 

Kiliri' stress at el.istic limit. 
Modulus of rupture 



Compression Parallel to Grain— 

Conipressixe stress a( el.istic limit. . . 
I'rusliiiiK streiiKlli .it tii.ixiniuin load. 



Compression Perpendicular to tJraln- 

Coiiipressive stri-ss ,it el.istic litnit 



Shearing- 
Shearing sfen^th parallel to uruin. 



'.Vei^ht percu. ft. (lbs.) oven-dry (liased on «reen volume). 
Specific gravity (l>,ise(l on \<ilume Rreen .itid weight oven-dryj 



Shipment 1 

Mountain 

fir from 

Morley, 

Alta. 


Shipment 3 

Mountain 

fir from 

('■olden, 

U.C. 


Shipment 2 

Coast 

fir from 

.Vbi otaford, 

B.C. 


3 . 880 

6,770 

1,232,000 


4,.1Q0 

7,531) 
1.488,000 


5,210 

8,180 

l,7.i6,0OO 


2,800 
2.960 


2.510 
3 . 380 


3,430 
4,010 


457 


495 


535 


837 


900 


906 


26.3 


27.5 


27.6 


421 


0.441 


0.443 



Nlmbkr ok Ti'STs M.Mii; AS Basis ior Rksclts 

The total number of tests upon which the figures given in Table 5 and 
Table 6 are ba.seel, are as given in the following Table (7):— 

Table 7.— Total .Number of Tests made as the Basis for Figures given in Tables 5 and 6.' 



— 




"=^- 


-_ — - — 




— _— - 


----- 


















^ 


= 








\ 






d 






.1 








1l 




z. 
r u 








'^, 






c 




X c 




^ 




S- C o 






c 
E 


I.iiC.dlt\. 


c 
'•J 




a 


?: )z 


r. 




o 
u 

5 


**■ i- 




X 


Total. 






*ri 


a. 


!= 


Z 'S 




ft il 


ri 




3 JZ 


Ci 




f. 




y. 




'■— ' 


'•^ 




7; 


U 


■^ " 


-;r. 


.5 










I 


.Morley, Ait.i 


26 
68 
44 

138 


9 

27 
21 

57 


51 
150 
105 
306 


33 
44 
45 
122 


25 

45 

41 

111 


36 

34 

114 


43 

34 

32 

109 


42 

36 

34 

112 


8 
21 
18 
47 


25 
24 


306 


? 


Abbotsford, B.C. . 


485 








Golden, B.C 

Total 




3 


22 
71 


396 





1,187 



The number of test pieces from each tree naturally varied considerably 
depending upon the size of the tree. The standard numbers of tests of each 
type for each tree, as s|K'cified in the working plan in accordance with which 
the tests were !nade, aie given in ileiail in the Appendi.x, |). 60. 

'In ajilition to thcso. 2.912 similar tests were made in an invcstisation of the 
variation of properties throusliout one complete tree. See p. J5. 



27 

This hiK'ritication was followj-il a,i closely as possilile, !itii (h casionalK', 
moro particularly in ilii- cast- of Sliipnu'iit 1, the logs of wliicli were all rather 
small and exceedingly knotty, it was inipossihlo to ohtain de.ir material sufticient 
for the full munber of tests. As a consecjuence in a tnimber of instaiu es figures 
jjiven in Tables 6 and 8 as averages for an entire tree are based on a single test 
tinly. As will be seen from data presented elsewhere in this bullelin, Douglas 
tir \aries ReatK' in properties from |)oint to jxiint in the cross-section of the 
tri-e, and individual tests may, therefore, n'lvv results ditferinK widely, dejiondinK 
on the position of the specimen tested relative to the heart of the tree. The 
figures mentioned may not be. for this reason, accur.itely re|)resent.iiive of 
average properties, although in every case- in which this condition occurred 
the loj; in (piestion was (|uile small and variations in pro|)erties throiij{l)out the 
cross-section would not be therefore, so j,Teat as would otherwise' be the case. 
All figures which in this way are the resuit of oidy one test haxc, in any case, 
been indicated on Tables 6 and 8, and due allowance can be made for thi? 
condition when considering the results. All figures not so indicated are based 
on an adetjuate numlier of tests. 

ToMPARISON OK Co.\ST .AND MolN TAIN Tvi'KS Ol l)()l(.l,AS FlK 

As will be seen from Tables 5 and 6 the three shipments Doug!, is fir 
tested were in the following order (ascending) as regards average stretigth ,ind 
density: 

1. Moinitain type Douglas fir from Morley, Alliert.:, Sliipment 1. 

2. Moimtain type Douglas fir from Golden, British ("olumbia, Shipment .?. 

3. Coast type Douglas lir from .Xbbotsford, British ("olumbia. Shipment 2. 
The shipment of coast type fir was stronger than either of the two shipments 

of mountain ty|)e tir, and of the latter that from the western slope of the con- 
tinental divide was stronger than that from the eastern slope. 

It is worthy of note that the strongest material came from the region of 
greatest annual precipitation and greatest mean anTui.ii temperature, and that, 
of the other two shipments, the weaker was from the region of legist annual 
precti)itation and lowest annual mean temperature. The trixs comprising 
the strongest shipment alsa were larger in pro|)ortion to .ige than Illo^.e of the 
other two shipments, and the trees of the weakest shipment were the smallest. 
This would seem to indicate that Douglas fir trees grown in an en\ ironiiient 
favouring the most \igorous dexelopment nia\- be ex|)ected to proiluce the 
strongest and densest timber. 

It is probable that llit distinction between the so-callid " mountain " 
and "coast " Douglas fir is largely a matter of localitv,' and that it would be 
jiossible to find material of characteristics ranging evtrx where l)etween the 
extremes of development of the two types. This is illustrated b\- the fact 
that tlie shipment of mountain hr from tiol.ien, Briiisli Columbia, is of pro|)erties • 
aI)out midway between those of the other two shipments, which are (probably 
• liiproxiniatch- re pre tentative of the cxt cmci of developmeiiL uf ihe species. 

'BotatiLsts while noting a difference between Douglas fir Rrown in tlie 

mountain!^ and that occurring on the coast give both the 

same scientific name. Psruiiolxusa mucronata. 



J. 



28 



Thi- oilU'ctor tintfs (111- (Kcumiicc in aiiiitlicr li>ialit\ of luoiinlaiii t\|M' Doiinlas 
fir <»f cl.ar . tcristics fwii nmri' clo^fK' approacliiiiK tlinsc of ilu' (■iia>t fir than 
thf ("i / ;; sliipnicnt. 

Thf Ddiinlas fir at pri-wnt In'inK i-xpurtcd from Uritisli Coliiinlii.L is prui)al>iy 
larK«'lv of the coast t\p.'. It is cstiinatid that tiif total (piantitv of this spcrics 
sawn iti Canada (hiriiin the yiar 1')15 was 4(H). 27.^,000 ft-it hoard nuMsiire, and 
tliat of this fully 86 |ht rent should ho classed as coast tyiie Doiijjlas fir. 

While av<'r.ij;es for the three shi|)iiients were in the above order of magnitude 
for all streii^;th x.ihies. with hut verv few exce[)tions, the indi\idiial trees of 
each of the shipments varied coiisiderahly in properties from the averages, 
certain of the trees of the shipment of intenneiliate propirtii's (Sliipment ^, 
moinitain t\pe fir from (iolden. British Columhia) i)einK stronger than the 
weaker trees of the strongest shipment, and certain others wt-aker than the 
stronger trees of tlu' weakest shi])ment. in all the more important tests, how- 
e\er. the we.ikest tree of the stronRCst shipment (coast ty|)e fir) was stronger 
than the stroIl^;est of the weakest shipment (Shipment 1 -mountain type fir 
from .MlnTta ). 

fCxceptions to the at)o\i' order of maKnitmle for the three shipments as 
reKard> a\era>;e strenj,'th \aliies occur in the following tests: 

1. ("leavaRO, 

2. Tension per[H'ndicular to grain, 

■V Work to maximum load in static bending. 

4. Compressive stress at elastic limit in compression i)araltel to grain, 

.S. Work to elastic limit in impact bending, 

6. Tangential hardness, 

7. Radial shear. 

Con:,idering these in order in the case of items 1, 2, and ,5 the usual order 
of strength is consistently reversed, the mountain type fir from Alberta having 
the greatest strength and the coast type fir the least. The variations also are 
considerable in amount. The reason for this condition is not understood. 

In the case of item 4, compressive stress at elastic limit, the shipment of 
mountain txix- fir from Alberta is stronger than that from Golden, British 
Columbia, although both are weaker than the coast tyjx; fir shipment. The 
explanation of this is probabK that the value for the Alberta fir is unduly high. 
Less sensitive compressomelers than those used in testing the other two ship- 
ments were employed in the case of this shipment, and the load-compression 
curves obtained were for this reason less accurate. The elastic limit point 
would as a conseciuence api)ear to occur at a higher value of the load than was 
actually the case. 

In items 5, 6, and 7 tiic \alucs for the British Columbia mountain type 
fir are greater than those for the coast type fir, although the latter is considerably 
stronger than the Alberta shipment of mountain type fir. The discrepancies 
are, however, all slight in amount and may be due to failure to obtain strictly 
comparable test pieces from each of tlie three sliipiuenls. (Tlie\ occur in tests 
of which a relativelv small number are made.) 



I 



2'> 
\.\Ri\ri()s or Ri;sti.is 

Thf aiiKiunts of variatifins in tlic axcram' siri'iiKlli s.iliu-> lor ilic ilin'<' 
>hi|>iiiirits arc itulicati'd in T.itili' 6. Assuming tl»at tin- coast tV|M' tir sliipnient 
from Aliltotsfoni. Ikilisli Cohiniliia. and the nioiiiitain tyiH- tir froiii Mork'v, 
Allwrta, an- a|)|)roxiiiiati-ly n-pri'st'TUalivi' of ihf two cxlrcini's of ilcvi'lopnu'nt 
of I)ou)j;las fir' it ajJiK-ars th.il tliero may \<v \.irialions of from 20 to M) [ht 
<t'nt lii'twi'di tilt' a\rraK<-' properties of inati'rial of lliis spicies j^niWH in 
(lifTercnt loralitii's. 

Tho amoimtsof \,iriation of maxima a'ul minima tri'i' a\rr,ii;»>aii<l inilividual 
test valiK'S al)o\o or iiriow tliv avfra^'i' f'lr llu' ciitiri- shipnu-nt, for each of tin- 
three shipments, are sliowii in Taiile S. 

It will l)e seen tliat the trees of Shipment .? mountain t\i)e (ir froin Ciolden, 
British Cohimhi.i showeil a wider vari.ition in pro|H'rties tiian iliosi' of either 
of the oilier two shipments. Variations of tree averayi's from shipment averajjes 
in few instances ran as hi^h as 40 per ceni, l>ut \ariations f.'om the averajje 
of 20 [XT cent in the case of aii\- of tiie more important strength \aUies were 
rare. 

Variations of indi\idiiai test \aUies from tiie shipment aNcra^es were, as 
would be expected, considerably f^ri^'iter than the variations of the tree a\eragfs, 
in .1 few cases heiii^ as jjrcat as 70 per cent. 



('oMPARisoN WITH Ri;st i.Ts oi Pki;vi()Is In\ isiki.mions 

A comparison of the al)o\o figures with the results of similar tests made 
b\ the United States Forest Ser\ice on Douglas fir shows that, in general, the 
results check rather chjsely. The shipment of mountain t\ [k- fir from Morley 
(iroves to be of almost identical average proixTties with a similar shipment of 
mountain typt> fir from M(mtana and Wyoming,* figures for which are given in 

'The rlose .iiirfcnient ot tlie tiyutes will he ..lefii from the follouin^ t.thlf wliiifi lihow.s tlie varia- 
tion ot the more iniiwrtant strength values tor the .Mherta Ootlk'I.is lir al»o\ e or below the 
corrcdponding values for the .Montana and Wyotninit Uouijl.is lir. 

Wiri.ilion (if .Miiirt.l 

1 iDiigLts Kir alHi\c or 

Ik'Idw ( cirri>|i.iniliiij; 

v.iliif I'lif Miiiii.iiu ,inil 

\\ Nulllill^ l)i)llf;l;i-, I'ir. 

I'lr n'lit of 

.Mlitrl.i lir. 

Matir lirnHint;. -I'iliri- strfris .il ^■la^ti^■ limit +~ -2 

" Modulus of nipt tin- -t-,? -.S 

" .ModiiltLs of I'l.isliiity -t-4-- 

('ompreFsion par.illil to uraiii— Maxiniutii (Ttishin^! strength 1-4 

l onipressioti pcrpeiidiiiilar to grain -C'omprussivf stress at elastic limit. -f I 5 

Sluarint,' ^treiiuth parallel to grain -.SI 

Specific gravity +.'.0 

a table in I'nited States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 556. Siniila'-' ' 
the strer 'i \ahies obtained for the shipment of coast type fir from .Abbots. - 



'Thr trees from whicti the coait type IJoUkLi^ hi kwi,> 
cut ■' were all of a inueh younger ctas.i,"' to quote the 
collector. " than the very larRe treiM which are found on 
the coast.'* the latter heiuK " usually from three hundred 
and fifty years of ase to five hundred, whereas the trees 
selected were under two hundred." A.s is shown else- 



>U.,1. Ill t:.., I,u:;i.iiii .^Ii.ukI;, m. i , vwUl .li.^taa^'^ 

from the heart in such trees and It 1.-, therefore, very 
prohahle that more mature trees of coast tyjie Hr would 
have Kiven somewhat liiyher strength values than those 
tested. 



30 

font. I'ritisli {'olmnhia, aRrt-f very iIomIx with thf ri-»ult(* of tewl» on DoiiKlas 
fir from \\'a^liiin;loii and Ori'Kon, as n-jMirli'tl in the sanu' piil>lic.nion.* 

•rif- V4ti.itii)nt tor till* nmrr iiii|Hirtant pruiH-rtir* i»( ihf-r two i*hlt>iiiriiu .tr 
lilitlt jtnl In tht- loltowiiu (.ilitr: 

\ ariiitioii ii( H.C, 
lliiiiKl.tt lir .ili.iM' iir 
IkIiiu I iirrr>|iiiiiilin^ 
x.iliii' (iir W.istiinnloii 
.mil t Intjiiii Diiiinl.i-, 
Iir. I'lr icm .if U.( . 
1 )iiiikI.i.< Iir. 
+ 40 
+ 4f> 
f «> (» 
+ 1-7 
limit + 0-<> 

- 4 
Id 



Sl.ilii 111 iiiliiii;. I ihrr -.triss ,\t rl.isiii liiiiil 
" Miiiliiliix lit rii|iliiri' 

" .Miiiliiliis n( rl.islii ity . 

in p.ir.illi I III K'.ii" Maxiimim rnishiriK >iri'nnih 

111 piriu nilii iilur ti> nr.iiii ('iiiii|iri'»»iv«' ••iriKs ,it el.i-ilir 

trt'ii^th iMr.illcl to )>rain 

.i\itv 



f'omprcssiii 
("oiiiprt^ 
Shr.irint! str 
Si"' ifir nr.i 



( hi tlic liasis of tlifsi' ti'sis it is pmhahiv- a riMMiiialilf coiulii-'iiiii lli.i! ( aiia- 
•liaii-jcrowii and Anurican-Krown Doimlas I'lr n- 'V 1k' coniidcrcd in In- of pr^uii- 
<aily idt^ntical proiHTtiis. 



ImI R-RI I..\TI(1\ or SiKI.M.III AM) I )i:NSITY 



It lias licen >liii\\n hy \.irioiis in\»'sti^;ators th.it a nlalion exists JH'twi'cii 
tlu' slr»'n^'tii of wood and its density, dens*' wood liciiin stronger tlian less dense 
woikI of the same species, .iiid of two dillereiil species the hea\ier i>ei^l^; as a 
rule the stronger. Tliis rule, of course, applies only in the casi' of comjiarisons 
on the h.isis of the inherent densit\- of the wootl siihstance itself. Tillilnr.'^ 
hca\\' liy reason of the pt^'si'iice in the wockI of e.xtraneous suhstaiucs such as 
moisture, oils, ri'sins, etc., would not necessarily lie stronnir 'han otlur lighter 
tiinlier.s in which tliesi' sulislaiices were present in lesscT aniouiits. l)oiiyia- 
fir and longleaf pine are two s|H'cies which illustrate rather well this consideration. 
Till' latter tinilier is c.iiisideraliK lu'a\ iir than Douglas tir li\ re.ison, in part, 
of a higher resin contiiit hut is not [jroportionateK' stronger, Douglas tir being 
in some resix'cls tlii' sirongiT of the two timlKTs. 

This relationship of strength and density proves to he so consistent and 
characteristic that it has been made the basis for a successful gratling rule lor 
strengtli in tiie case of the southern pines, the proportion of siimnier-wdiii 
being used ,is a \isual imlex of the density, llach growth-ring, as seen in I he 
cross-section of a piici' of wood of longle.if pine or Douglas tir. consists ol a 
band of liglit coloured wood on the inside, which merges into .i d.irker coloured 
band of harder materi.il on the outside of the ring The light coloiiri'd wood 
whicli is tunned during the e.irly jiart of the grow itig sear.oti is known as " spring 
or " early " wooil, the dark coloured portion foniied during the late summer 
and fall is referred to as " summer '" or " late " wood. Summer-wood is se\'erai 
times heavier than spring-wood, and correspondingly stronger, and a limber 
containing a large iiroporlion oi summer-wood will, accordinglv , i>i' ol griMier 
strength than oni' in which less summer-wood appears. 

Reference to the tables of results presented in this bulletin shows that this 
principle is confirmed by the tests t present under consideration. In 'I'able (> 




M »-T MM l-« t-2 1-2 2-4 a-l 1-4 a-S l-l «-• 2-S «-• 



iic;. Z\. Curves show; .^ parallel variatimis nf aMT.i.;i- slri-iiKth. <lrn~ii\ . and protiortinii 
ol suninn.r-\vi)(>(l tor tiflien trees <>f Douglas fir. Shipnieiil- 1,'j anil .<.j' 



32 

i. N^ill Ik. «...n that .!»■ av.n.Ke t\uuu-s U .^nnUr ^nnUv an,| ,Hr. .n.a... . 
Mnm,u.r-w,HHl for .ho ...r... s[,i,n,u„,s aro in ,l». san.e unU-r ..f „a« . , . 

r winch . th.. stronKcs. of „„■ .hn.. U-in^ ,1... n.o„ ,|..„.. an.l ha ' ^ d 
h Kh.-.r ,..n..maK.. of .unmuT-^....!. an.l ,h.. n,oun.ain ,v,k- I)o„Kla. ,ir S,r 
A >K.r,a, uhKh .s ,h. u..ak..s,. l^inK .ho l..a,t .k-„.. an.l having ,i . .^". 
|.ropor„on ..f MunnuT-^o,.!. The variation in ,h.. n.,..hani.al pro.H.r.i.-s i. 
^irjZ:" ' """" '""" ""•'" ""• «'-— <-'i"« vaL.ion I 

Th.. av.raK.- values f.,r the in.livi.lual .reen of ,h.. ,hr.-.. shi,,nun.. whil, 
»ot ,.nfonn.nK .o .h.s rnle with al.oh.,.. r..,nlari,v n..^..r,hel..L .h.,u , 
WO.KI ..f Km.. ,lens„v an, hi.h proportion of su,n„,..r-u...K| u;uls U, W- .tronKe, 
iKu, less. ens,. n,at..r.al,.fl,,w.rpr..,..r.ion..fsun,nu.r.w..,..|. This is ilh.str-,^e. 
t.v f.«. 21, whuh shows paralh.l n.rves of s,n.n«,h. .lensi,. , an.l .hT. ' 

^ n,,v.r-woocl f,,r ea.- of „.. fifteen ...s tes.e.l. arran^...! in as.LlinK ^,i 
«•( .lens.t • as „uh.ate.l In sp,.. i,„- ,n-avi,y. F, will U. oLsc-rve.! that tlu. o,he, 

:r;ii^^t-;:""*'^ '^^"^'""^ "-''-'- ^'- '- ■ --" • -'^; 

I)ia,^an,s phmc.l u. sho. ,. variation ..f pro,H.r,i..s ,hrou,l,ou. all parts 
. f a .single tree ,P,«s. 2A ,.,»., ..u,. ,h„w a parallelism of ,1... .urvc.s of str-.^l 
clenstty. an, prop, rt ion of sun.nu.r-wo.,,!. in.li.atin, tl.a, in all por.i..ns of i' 

mr"'" ^'' ^^^"^""'■" ^"" -■" "*"-^ -" '-'' -."-' f 

rt wonl,l appear that a gra.linp rule for DouRlas f\r l,ase,l on .lersitv as 
.n-icated hy prop,,rt,on of sumnier-woo,!. similar to that at pres^.nt in use' f. r 
southern pme, woul.l in.' a prontisinR possil.ilitv 



Effect ok Moisture upon Strkn. 



TH 



Tests to invstigate the ..filect of air.,ir>ing uj.on strength nuule on sneci il 
n.a enal fron, each of the ah.ne three shipnu-nts in.licate that a vervoLid r 1 

P " hdl r' ; ^"^"•"/^"" -T-''^^-^- ^^^ '■— e. h.,w.ever. onlv taking 
plau l„.l<,w a a.r,am cnt.cal nto.sture content.' Two .-ontiKUous four-f.-.U 
bolts were cut fron, one' of the tive trees tested as l.asis for the average for 
Sreen „,ater,al for each of th. three shipn-ents. These logs were saw« in o 
sncks .n the usua manner' and half the sticks of each interchanged, so fl " g 
WO coniposue bolts which should be of practicalK- i,l..ntical propertie s 
ar as vanat.on w th height in the tree is con,-erned. One of the ■' c.,nCsi e' " 
bolts was teste,! ,n the green con.li.ion, the other was air-dried to o st 'nt 
w,..ght an,l tested. The ratios of the average strength values for he "v 

bolt to those for the green bolt are a n^easure of the et^'ct of the ai'iv ng up^n 

'The so-calM "fibre saturation noint " S..» I' s ji .u 

Potest S-rvice Bulletin No 70. H D TiemaAn • Fff,. ,' „ '" .'f' "" °' Shipment 1. the trees biins small 









?'?"■ ■T^TS' 



i^ 







Mill (.. Ul >l 1.1- Ml ll>l- <i\ -M\||. , I I \R -CI, |\ll \- , r.K\.\:\ 1)(H.,I,\- Ilk iilA-r 

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KAIInS AM) V.\RIATION 



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■I (1 rl'i '' i il ^ --'.' i 

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R Mi>.\>r WD \lurM\l\ \ AKII-.lll.s. IRiiM II : l,H M.llil.^ IN \|,|;|k|\ \M, |l|;||i^|| (,i|.IMi)l\ 
S AM) ll|i< III!, INDIVIIHAI, rUi:i,;S (IK r\.'ll -l! I \| 





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-trii ll\ tuiii|>.ir.ililc a-, f.ir ,is this nl.iiion is ciiiiicriu i| 

All s|H.,i,.s tcstcl. iiiiihr the illM -.liKMlii.ll ul wlii.h thr almw |,M, .,i, 
DoiiKlas tir .iif .i part. will. tliii.rMi, . !„■ , uin,,,,,,,! -.ii ilw 1mm, ,,1 ih,' .t, ii^ih 
ill till- ;;rfrll riiii'litiim. 



\.\i<i.\iiu,\ OF i'K(»i-i kins wrrn \.\ki.\ri()\ oi i-oshfox i\ 

iiii; iki.i: 

M \i I \<i \i \\i> Ml iiiot.s 

lor the piiriu.M' i.f liiiniiiiTini^ ilu- .iiiioiiiit nf v.iri.iliini odtirriiij; in tlu- 
imrhaiiical and phNsir.il proprrli-, ul ni.it.ri.il from ililT.r.iit positions within 
thr same tni' ol DoiikI.i.s Dr. lists w.rf made on siu,issi\c loiir-toot l.olts 
rojnprisiiiK the cntiro nuTi lumt-iMc I, ngth of our Ivpi.al Ire,, of oMst t\\H- 
l)i-uv;l.is fir.= Tlusf fi-sts \\,rc in ,mts w.iv si,„,|,,r to those ni.idc as the liasis 
lor averaKi- fiKurcs for tlu' thrr.- shipnutits, J,<M.> tests i„ all heiiij; niade.^ 

In addition to the re^:iil.ir series of i, sts, in, .isuieiiients of tilire lensth were 
also nuiih' on m.iteri.d ciil from disi s of the full section of the tree, taken at 
intervals of eiKht feet throughout llie Iiiiutli of the s.inie tree. For each disc 
one .inntial rinn at every tw<ni> \e.irs growth, from the p<riphery to, and 
inrl idiiig, the first annual ring, was sttidie,!, .Su (Hires from each rinj; lifing 
measured. 

roNTi rsiONS 



From the re.sults of the almve tests and determinations tile following general 
conclusions may he drawn: 

1. Wowl of least strength .mil density, and of shortest tilire. occuns at 
flu" heart of the tree in the region including, and inimwli.itely adjacent to, 
the pith. Outwards from this region towards the t)eripher\- of the tree the 



'The I'nited States Foreat Servicp aiv^t 7\ n^r 



rvjtti 



5r.,H"'"£,?^-^'^;-^''A^ri?;iA:;^^'?:r^i ^l;^"li.^^i'!^^l:::r^:,'^^^--''<'"'°''^^ 



Syrvic. Bulletin 88. Washington. Tsff. "dine-ki.d 'For .Icscr.p.ion of" meihodV of ,n.,king tests see 

Appendix, p. oo. 



Kiiapp. P. S4. 
2874,3— 3 J 



trcii^lli, (l(iisil\, .111(1 filito li'iiiilli inciiaso rapiilK al first, ami then at a nuii'll 
sldwor rate, rcacliiiiH; a iiiaxiimini al tlii' |H'ri|)lR'r\-.' 

2. X'ariaiioii with liiiKlii in tlu- Inv of tin- iiu'cliaiiical and |)li\siial i)ro- 
ptTtii's was less in .iniount and tnori' iiioyiilar than Ironi iho heart to tho in-ri- 
l)lifr>', Imt in v;<'ntral it appi-and that: 

(1) l)»'iisit\- dicrtased with hcij^iit in the tret-, hciiiK k''"-''*'^' •" •'•*' '"'" 
an<l least at the top of tile tree; 

i2) .\\(raKe lilire ieitnth rtached a iiiaxiniiiin al a height of about 42 fei't 
from the mdiind, derrea>iii!; from litis point lioth towards lite lop 
and towards the luitt and lieiii^ less at the luill than at tlie to|); 

l\) SlreiiKtii deereasitl with hei),;lit in liie tree. 

Two exreplioiis to the alio\e K<'neral rules should lie noted: 

u;) Near the top of -he tree (Holts C to H', IK) to t .^6 feet from the irroui.d) 
llu'ie occurred a re^;ion in which liie general rule that strongest and di'iiscst 
wood is found al the peri|)hery and weakest and lijjhtest at the heart was 
rexersed, the slroiiiiesl and densest wood heing al tlii' heart. The reason tor 
this occurri'iK c, which is prolialiK' an indi\ idual pectiliaril\- ol the tree, is not 
understood. 

(/)) In accord. nice with liie ^;eneral ruU' th.il slreiij;th di'cre.ises with lu'ight 
ill tlie tree it WMui<l lie expected that the stronyot material would lie tound 
at the extreme butt. Tliis rule held ijood for the ]iiaioril\- of the sirength 
functions, liiit in the case of static and im|),ict lieiidinK and compression jiarallel 
to j;rain tests the niaxinunii v. dues occurred at heights of from 10 to .^0 leet 
from the ground, ard the streiiglli values decreased from these ixiinls dow iiwards 
towards the liull a-~ well .is upwards. There appeared loi'xist near the pe iphery, 
ill the hull of the tree, a region of dense m.iterial of short fibre which was strongi-r 
than .iin otlur m.tlerial in the tree in most respi'Cl^ but not correspondingly 
strong ill bending .iiid in compressive strength paralK i to the grain. 

It was notice. ible that the wo^d in this region w.isof ratliiT irregular grain, 
tending towards the i:C(urr(iice of cross-grain. I'liis would be e.xpecled to 
.iffect the bending .ind com|)ression p.ir.illel to grain tests to a considerably 
greater ilegree lli.iii an\- of the otlie's, and may be the explanation ot the occu.-- 
reiict' of this unusu.il condition. 

I'KI-i.NtATKiN Ol- Ri;si lis 



It is .1 r.illier ditlicull in, liter to show gr.iphic.ilK b\- means ol cu'Aes l!ie 
\a.-'.ilion of properlics tiiroughout .ill p.iil^ of a li-ce. bec.iuse of the occurrence 
of x.iri.ilions in two ditTereiit directions (\i.'.: willi heigiit iii the tree and with 
position in the cro^s-section 1. coupled with ihe fact th.it a tree tapers from 
the butt lo the lop. Thus, the .ige and di.inieter being gre.iter at the butt 
ill. Ill .It ilie lop. if it is .illeinpled to pre[).ire .1 curve to sjiow the average variation 



'SiltiiLil ti>l^ li\ ot.i.T I'u.'-tm.itni^ ->.■,■ " Tiliilicr 
I'hvsiis HMiMif III iin< ~liii.in.iii- .arricd "ii in iIm- 
i;.'s. l)ivi-i.)ii ol liiri'<trv, l.HX'J IK'AS. ■ l-ilil„.rt Kulli 
I«')>». I'. .CSII -li.iw lli.il I..r l.iimN'nl piiif slrcnvllli anil 
.iL'iisitN' riir\ts .tltt-r f.i. hinti .i niaxiiiiiini \.ilit. .iniii 
off to«iircl till' iiciii'li.ry in ol.l '"•>•■;■ in.iiiatini; tli.it in 
fxtrciiie idii .ii;f liiHiK I vMMK.i itii.i ii--- .l.ii-.- lii-.n lii.il 
lornieil ililrini; the ].. ii™l ol .iiitinimn .ii'v. loimii-iu i^i 
put on. .Vpiiarcmi\- tin* trt'i' iiti'tf: invi->tii::ition li.ul 
not riM. Iit'd itsoptiimini romiition at 177 yi-ars. as^iiiniiiK 



till- salili- I.iw 1.1 hull! trilf I'nr Doimla? lir. It M.r.ii.l 
.i|ili<-.ir. tliticloif. lli.it l.iiKei irt-fn ol this siifiii-s coiii- 
luonly .U(iiitiii« on tlu" toast niinht tit- cxih'i ti-'l to 
mm. on in lii.-ii Miliinif in excess of the volUi.u' ol the 
tree tested, lip to .1 lertain point, timber ol strength 
equal to or greater than the niaxiimiin lor tile tree under 
.. ,11.-1. !.i.. :....!. .\.i.:u:..ii.o t.-t-- .-.n iar;;i:r tree- woiiid 
tie required lo determine the .iiie .it whi. h the optiiiiilni 
(ondilion is riM.hed in Donitlas lir. 



(.f pnii Id-tics from llic pilli lo ilic luripluTy lor the ciilirc licf. llic ciirvc will l.r 
distorted whotlitT ,i\fr,i^cs arc made tlirou^'linul the Icnelli nf the tnc al ri|iial 
(listaiufs from llic pilli or al tiiiial (li^Iall(•(■s iVom the ixriplurv, ouini; lo 
the fact that in cillicr case the axira^cs for material farthest from the i)oiin 
of reference (iiitli or iieripherv I will inchid,' (,nl\- material Irom ihe l.iitl of 
tin- tree, 'l"he ellect of vari.itioii in diameter w iili heiylit in tiu- tree tin:- liec omc^ 
a factor in the comparison. l"or this reaxm seU'ciid repre<eiil,iti\e (ur\e- 
,-houinj; the t\pical varialinii ,;f prop.erties throiii^hoiit the cro-^-cc I ion. al 
\arioiis heiijht^ in the tree, are pn.liaMx more cnli^hleninK lii'i" cm\i> of 
a\era>;es I'or the entire trei'. 

Simil.irly, it curves to show the \ariali(.7i of pruiierlie- willi hei.uhl in ihe 
tree are drawn hy plottini;- axera^e^ for ihi' miire <ni-.-M c! ion taken al ie:,^nlar 
iiiterxals tlirou.uhont the lenyth of ihe tree, the axerai^es for cro-— -cm licin- near 
the hull ol tlie tree will inchiile material niach older liian occurs in ihr lop, 
the effect of \arialion with p.-iiion in the cro-.^--,, < i ion hciiii; iliu^ iiixuKcd 
in the comparison. ('oiise(|iientl\-. a\er,iL;es for m.iterial of the s.ime a:ce onl\ , 
al all heights tlirout;h the tree, \v<.iild lie a more re.i-on.dile li,i>i> for curves lo 
show vari.ilioii with heitjhl in the inc d'.in .i\erai;c> for the enlire cros'-Mciioii. 
Thus, in the present iiisiance. the live in (pieslion lieiiiL; NS \-. .ir-, old ,ii ih,- 
lop of the merchanlaMe lenylh. .iM.r.ii;c^ f,,r ihe last S.S year.-' i^rowlh onK-, 
at inler\,iU throughout the len.ulli of the tree, would lie a heller ii.dic.ii ion 
ol \ariations with height in the tree ih.m a\er,i,i;e> for the enlire cro—.-.i ciion. 

In accordance with the aho\ e discussion typic.il cur\es which ilhi>irate 
the characteri>tic variation of properties with position in the cross->ection, 
tor the tree under consideration. ha\c l)eeli selectul in the present iiist.mce, 
and .ire shown in Figs. _'.^ to 2S. All are.ictn.d curw- for certain <l(linile sections 
of the tree, as indicated in conne(lioii with the hi;ures. lii;.-. 2.-> to 2.s show 
the x.iriation of the rate of ^lowlh, specihc Kr.i\il\-. sumnuT-wood. moi>tiire, 
and lihre length; and l-"it;s. 27 and IS show the correspondint; xariation of the 
mechanical properties as illustr.iled h\- strength in static hending and c<nn- 
pression jiarallel to gr.iin. 

It will he oh.MTxed that tluTe was hi general an increase in sirenyth, stillness, 
density, and hhre length from the i)ith towards the pi-ripher\, the r.ite of increase 
heing most rapid at the centre and decre.i-ing towards the periphery This 
fe.iture was most pronounced in the case of the hhre length i Fig. 2?^}. which 
increa-ed h\ 41)0 or 5t)() per cent from the pith to the peripherv, the rate of 
increase heing very rapid near tlu' pith .md pn.gres.-ixely less farther out in 



the tree, the v.iriation from a point 60 or 70 grow th-rings from the pith 



outw.trtis 



to the peripherv- heing slight. 

The curve of rings jxt inch (recijirocd of rate ot growth: indicates the 

occurrence of wide Rrowlh-rings al the heart and a decre.ise in width with 

increasing distance from the pith. The rate of this decrease w.is ^U>\\ 
I near ihe heart, more rapid farther oul in the tree, and slow again at a distance 
I ?' ^^""^ '^' '" " iiH-hes from the pith. Thedrop of the ciirveat theextremeend 
1 inilicales a decrease in the niimher of urowth-rings to the in.ch at the peripherv . 

This occurrence of wood of more rapid growth al the luripluTv of the tree ■- 



I 



undouhtedly an individual peculiarity of this particular tree. Similar curves 



38 

for otlu'i Iri'cs showed a steady increase in the niinil)er of ),T()\vth-rin^s per 
ineli ail Ii'- »a\ to tlie |)iripliery. 

Tlie eiir\-e of moist iiri' is lu'ciiliar in risinj^ to a very decided nia\inuini 
at the periphery after deereasint; sii,u;hti\- from the pith to within a fi'W indies 
of the periphery. In similar cur\es for otlier tn-i s of the same siiipment (coast 
I\|)e fin this same ])eciiliarit>- occurred, l)iit for ail the trees of the other two 
shipments imoiinlain l\pe fir) tlie curves continued to drop to a mininiiuii at 
the periplier\-. Typical curves for the three shipments shown in Fig. 26 
illustrate this point \er\- wi'll. 

A diflerence in the season of felling might l)e suggested as the explanation 
of this condition l>y the fact that the two shipments of mountain ty in 

which the increase of moisture at the periphery did not occur were c u- , -' 
the winter.' whereas four of the h\e trees of the shipnent of coast t\pe 
which the increase did occur were felled during the autumn. ° This theor\ 
however, apparentiv- U|)set l)V' tlie fatt that the fifth tree' of the shipment ot 
coast t\pe hr, which in coiiimo:i with the other trees of the same shipment 
showed a markeil increase in moisture at the peripherv', was cut during the same 
month as the shipments of mountain tv()e fir.' 

There were no marked dilTereiices in the treatment received by the three 
shipments of material after the time of cutting. The explanation of the presence 
of this region of high moisture content near the pi'riphery in the ca.se of the 
shipment of coast tvpe tir and its ahsenci' in the case of the two shipments of 
mountain tvpe fir. is, therefore, not apiiarent, ap.irt from the fact that it may 
he a maniiestation of some inherent dilfiTi'iice between the two forms of Douglas 
fir. 

Fn Figs. 29 to 37 will be found curves which indicate the variation of 
the \arious mechanical and phv-sical jiroperties with heii.!ii in the tree. The 
solid curves in every case show the variation of .iverages for all material in 
successive four-foot bolts throughout the length of the tree. The corresponding 
dotted curves show the variation of averages for the last 88 years' growth (Jiily, 
for each bolt. It will be observed that the dolteil curves in every case reach 
higher values near the butt than the soli<l ctirvis. indicating that the presence 
in tin lower bolts of material of greater age than that found in bolts nearer 
the lo]) has the el'lect of making the v.iriation in properties of material put 
on ;it varving heiglits in the trei', as indicated bv' bolt averages, appear less 
tlum is actuallv' the cise.' 

.\s shown by the curves, densitv , percentage of summer-wood, .iinl amount 
of shrinkage on oven-drying in general decre.i>e from the butt to thi' top of 
the tree in a somewhat irregul.ir manner. 

The curve of fibre length has its minimum value at the butt, increases 
from this jioint to a maxiimuii value at Holt J, 42 feet above the ground, and 
from Holt J decreases steadily towards the top of the tree, the decrease being 
less from Holt J to a point ')() feel above the ground th.m from this point to 
the t(.p of the tree. 

'Month of Fphru;iry. fJH. 

'.M„lUli ,)i Vi,Uh,l,. I, IVI.i. 
'Tree 1. .Shipment 1. 
*See di.^cUi(si<in. p. .16. 



nmm 



39 

RirKs iHT iiali iippaiviuK- iiKifasc in imicl- thu s.nm- iii.miicr as the I'lhrc 
li'TiKth to a inaxinuint value ahoiit hall-way up the tree, thereafter aKaiii decreasing 
towards tlie top of tlie tree. Tlie ciirse for the last <S8 years uloltedi shows 
this elTeet to a iiiiicli greatt'r de^Ti'^ than the curve of holt averages (solid). 

The curves of moisture (l-ig. M) are rather erratic, hut in geinTal >eein 
to iiiflicate that the moisture content w.is slightly greater ;it mid-height in the 
tree th.m at the ends. The curve for the last ?<S years' growih (doited line) 
reaches considerably higher values llian the ciir\f of holt averages i full line), 
this heing in accord with the f.ict noted ahove that a r»>gion of higii moisture 
contiin existed near the peripher\- of the tree. The slightly iipwanl trend 
of the curve of the holt averages (full linel indicates not that higher moisture 
content existed at the toi> of the tree hut th.it there was a gri'ater proportion 
of wet wood in the cro tioti of the tree at this point. The zone of high 

moisture near the periplur\ , heing of constant width, coii'^titiited a greater 
proportion of the tr^tal area at the top, where the diameli was relati\eK- small, 
than at the butt. 

The curves for the various mechanical tests indicate a general decrease 
in strength, stiffness, and toughness with increasing luight in tlii' tree, tlie 
maximum valucsoccurring at or near the butt and the minimum in the toj) of the 
tree. In the case of the bending tests and of comjjression paralli! to grain 
the cur\es, in a()parent exception to this rule, drop off at the butt >omewhat, 
the jna 'num \alue occurring at a height of from 10 to M) feel above ihe ground. 
As exi)lained ahove this condition is probabK- due to the i)resence of cross- 
grained material which occurred m'ar the piTipher\- in the butt. 

The extreme variahilit\- of the niajoritx- of the cur\-es is prohai)l\ , for the 
most part, truly indicati^•e of coiresponding irregular \ariations in 'he properties 
of the tind>er at different heights in tlii' tree. Some of the \ariations may, 
however, be due to failure to obtain test i)ieces truK represent at i\i' of average 
conditions throughout the section of thi' tree at any gl\en height, the effect 
of the very considerable \ariations in proiierlies with vari.it ion in position 
in the tToss-section being thus made a factor in the conip.iriscjn. 

That the |)n)perties do not mitv uniformly from |)oint to point throughout 
the tree, but tliat pronounced local variations occur, is well illiistr.ited h\ I'igs. 
,^8 lo 41. These diagrams, which as a basis for stinh' of thi' x.iri.ition of i)ro- 
IKTties throughout the tree are perhaps more enlightening than the two systems 
of curves presented above, are longitudinal sections through the heart of the 
tree, drawn, of course, to a much distorted scale, with regions m.ipped out 
on them in which the s|)ecial propert\' under consideration is belweeJi certain 
limits. The region in which the greatest \alues occur has the hea\ii'st hatching, 
that in which the mininuim \alues occur has the lightest, and intenuediate 
are;i~ ha\e been indicated by an appropriate graduation of the shading. 

iig. 38 shows in this wa\' the distribution of dense wood tliroughout the 
tree. It will be observed that the maxinuim values occur at the butt of the 
tree near the i)eriphery and that less dense wood is found upward and inward 
from thi.s point, the least, dense being at the heart. An apparently abnormal 
reversal of this distribution of light .md heavy wood in the top of the tree (Molts 



mmm 



mmmim^i^ 



40 

{"' l<. K') is clfarly in.liraud. \hv prcsriKv ni a promnmcc.l I.h-.iI variation 
at Molt A , wlnTc a rcKion of imiisuallv lUu^r wood occurs, is also shown. 

FiKs. ,<<J an.l 40, in a siniil.ir ntanTur, indicate the variation of Ixwlin^ 
and compressive strenKth thn,„Klio.ii the tree. .\ hroad. unuT.il shnilaritv 
between these .hakn.ins ..nd thai f.,r spe.itir ^ravitv, indicatini; a relationsjn-p 
between strniKth and density, will be noted. An aiireenient in all details, of 
course, does not occur, althoii.uh the anoni.il.ais revers.i! of the relative location 
of d.nse .md liuht-weinht «o<:<l in the top i. paralleled l,v a similar reversal 
of strength conditions, and ., re.ui,,n .,1 cMeptional strength a|.pears \n the 
vi.-mity ..I Uoh .\ to corresp,,nd «iih the area of dense wood found .it this 
point. 

liK-41 illustrates in a siniilarnKinner ill.' (hVtribmion of moisture throiiL'hont 
the tree. 

The .lat.i of wiiich llu' forcKoini; curves and .li.i-ranis are a uraphic.d presen- 
tati.ni ,s Kiven in mnneri.-al fomi in T,,ble> 1(1, 11, ,„,d 12 inside ih.. back cover 
Table 10 shows .,ver,i,ues tor .ill the v,,ri.,u> u pe^ ,,f ,c.t for succesMve tour-fool 
bolts, comprising; th. .ntire merch.nitable length nl the tree. T.d.le 11 i.ives 
.similar <hita tor the l.ist S8 years' Knnvtli of e,„h l„,lt. |„ T.ible 12 the results 
of rertam ol the tests are .irr,,n.i;i'<l t" -how th.. v.iri.ilion, thnniKhoitt the cross- 
section, ol the more hiiportani properii.s. f r each bolt in the tree. 

Jheam.nmtsof the variationsof the v.inou. properties with dilTerinKpo,sitions 
m the tree aiv shown in Table 10. The m.,xin,um percent.i^^e vari.nions of the 
bolt averages Ironi the tree a^ era.Lje v.ihu s .,re here indi.-.ued, and tin- niaxiniMin 
percentaRc variations of stick aveniyes from the .-orrespondinK bolt averages 
..re also yiven for tho^e tests of which tl... results .,re .lassitie.l accordiuR to 
d.st.mce from the pith. It will be obscrxed that the latter hKures are in ahnost 
all c.ses greater th.m the fotiner. This indic.tes that greater xariations in 
properties than occur throuj;hout the entire length of the tree, on the b .sis 
ot th.. bolt averages, are to be foun.l in .crt.iiii cross-sections of the tree betw,.en 
the pith anil the periphery 



■Pi 



1 



•0, '" »** »»* TM »iio IIS 



i 



MMD M wntNT or «oeo 
WNm ovn M«r. fn cnr 



^MPORTMN or tuMmmoec 




spionc wuviTY 

MSUON VOUHH WHIN 

aniiN AND wntm whin 

OVIH Dirf 



Ku;, li. 



2*15 iMo yjm wjoo «.w~ 

OKTANCI nWN mK OP TME, MCMEt 

with distaiRi' from thr |)ii!i l,,r Irw I. Shi|.iiu-nl .', ■ Holt I) . I'lrtii;, 



9iF 



»«I0 




MOISTUM COMTINT 
MHO OM WIMHT OT 



PNO^OflTION Of tUMMOWOOD 
MR CUT 



•Monc aMviTV 

MMOOMWUtW 



2.W9 S.UO 

DWMNCI PMOM 



M7S 10.900 

Of Tim. MCMt 



Flc. 24. — Curves slKjwinj! characteristic variation of physical and structural properties 
with distance from the pith for Tree 1, Shipment i. (Holt ]!: 



^!^ 



MiMruM McicgHn moM nmmntv 

_M0 OO MO JO •? 40 




•nuiMTim 

« TO* or MIT -L- 
IMPnT FMM WIOtMO 



AvnuM noM ihmth 
MiLUMmm 

« TOr or iOLT "T" 

■amTmoH wwtMO 



AVmAOr 'tOM UMTTH 

MiuwKnm 

»T TOP or MLT -•- 

w mr moM amum 



n S7 77 97 IfT KT 

Ml M vuMS mcKomo moM rrm «r stump 



!■!'-;. 25. ( r.rvv. ^h-.-*m-^ c!i.i:a< It-riMic- \.iri.i;l,>-i .,;' iii.u i, iii,ii, u.nn inui i., [ii-r ipluTV 
ol I n-c 1. Shipnu-nt 2. I Hull^ li, 1. ,mil 1.'). 



:.'-U..-'J4 ' -. ii^. ^^,. ' . i .'.^^ 



•lie 



I > 




SNinwNT I, MouirTtw rm 

niPRISCNTID IT CUNVI FOM 
•OIT MO 



SHinWNT 1. MOUNTAIN PHI 
MFMSENTCD OY CUNVI rOA 
MU 3-T-t 



SNIPMENT 2. COAST FIR 
NIPMUNTtO IV CUNVt POR 
■OCT 2-l-J 



2.«2S S.2S0 

OWTAHCI PHOM 



l.rt^ M.500 

or THEE. WCHU 



ll(.. 26.— Curves sTiowiiiK characteristic variation of moisture content wiili distance from 
the pith for Shipments: 1. 2. and .<. 



STKK NUIHMt 
10 000 , Lii *** »*> T>l ttie II >H 



MN nR 

Mvi roit 



MOO 



UN PHI 

wvi pon 




STATIC HIiaiNO 
MOOULUt OP RUPTUNI 
POUNDS PIN SaiMNI HKH 



RVt PON 




STATIC lINOINa 

PIMI STRESS 

AT ILASTIC LIMIT 

POUNDS P(R SQUARI INCN 

COMPRISSION PARALLIL 
TO SRAIN 

CRt IINa STRINQTN 
AT MAXIMUM LOAD 
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 



STATIC UNOINS 
MODULUS OP EUSTICrrV 
1000 POUNDS 
PER SQUARE INCN 



9.290 T.S75 lO.SOO 

DISTANCE PROM PITH OP TREE. INCHES 



13.129 



Ik,. It. turves sliowiiiK iharaitc-risiir variation of nioili.uiic.'' irom-riii , wiili ill-t.i 
lioMi iliL- piih, fur Tri'i- 1, Shipmont 1 (liolt iJi.— M. .ic !■. icli.ig aiiil 
conipro^sioii paraljrl to ^rain 



TH 



MUMMI ' * « l±* ••• T»» »««0 




mtnc MM 
Moouuit or minrm 

POUHM Pm MU*M W 



STATIC 
rMM ! 
AT liAtnc 



MMMISMOa nUUILB. 

TO wum 

CMMNNM OTMINTH 
AT MAXIMUM LOAD 
POUNDS PtR SOUAM MM 



STATK I 

MODULUS or lUSTKITY 

1000 POUNDS 



2.429 S.2S0 T.«T5 

oiSTAHCi riiOM riTM or tnh. 



ii.ais 



Kic. 2S. — C urvi'^ ^howiriK i liaracteristic variation ol merhanicai iiropertiiv- with distaiue 
from the pith for Tree 1, Shipment 2 (Bolt ]i. — Static liendintj and 
compression parallel to fjrain. 



46 



§ 

Is 



¥ 






i 




f III. 


\J 


1 


1 


t 






k 


, 


1 1 








s 


! , 1 /J„ :.,^.„ 










b 


; : 1 < 


1 




- f- 






h 


< 






—. ♦ 






\i 


1 1 -, — , 


f i 




f 








' <i 

*■ II f . ..-- f 4 






i 


J 










1 t 

1 1 — 


— 










' 1 < 








1 










i r~ii 


.1 


t- — 












: 1 f 1 


|_^.. 












i 






• 




1 <*1 


i 1 


-J 

i 




' ! B 

1 tt 




' H ' 





I 


1 




\{' 




1 1 -f 




— 1 — «-* — 1 — 1 — 


; 






— — * 




' 




■■ 1 


1 ' 


1 ^ 




- - 


" 1 

8 


3 •■ 


I\ 


' 1 


~T— ! 






i" 




1 




I] 1 i: 




:< 





' f™ — 4 

< 










^ r 1 






— ^ * 




i* ^ 


c 






' t 

\ 8 




















°» 1 


1 


[ ■ 


' 1 K 




>v 


< 




■ — ' — \ — S 

1 




Y 4 


' « 




' j — s 




\\ 


« 




1— t 




■y ' 


♦ i 


\ 1 ? 




— p V 


1 r 1 ' «■ 




''■ T 


! of: ' ? 




.'Z' i 


; o>! - -j 


X 




— ^ — t-t — t 




: « 




It 




M ' 




i« 






H 




oj ; ~i 




1?' 








t 




' A ^ 




/* 




■ — r 

I 


1 




-4— A i 1 








f 


8 




1 

1 ■ ; -1 r 










1 


M 


s 


» t » t 


1 a 


O 


3 


3 3 


3 


3 


6 





t- > 



-V 



3 ^ 

u -r- 
.r — 



Z'> ^ 



- * 

-5 - 



47 



wm 





■c 

1 

1 



S S 



4i» 



,<*» J. * 







8 8 5 8 8 



'>71:j 1 



N 


i 


> 




» 


-■ 


> 


j 


gs 




5 - 




K 


i 


a 


4 


o 





"* '' c 

in 



\ 






K 


\ 




J 


^ 


1 

t 


Y< 




1 



'f; 



I I i 



i»J«f i-!!i"i»S'-T. 



.11 



ill 





..J< , 



'i 1 



III 



- 1 



f 



i i i I i i I i i i 









i i ■'■ 

I i 

5 - .^- 

J I i. 

S f ' 

S _ z 

S - 'i 

I ^ ; 

8 " i 

s ! i 

3 « 1 

« -^ J 

«. ' I 

Z 1 

* ■■-" ! 

S .1 £ 

» ! ^ 

t ■? I 

s -I : 

s if 

s Is 
a 

S ;;■ 
J 

8 '~ 



•-N7i:i— ij 



'i 




<-'7j::'i:^wmT. 




3 i § i i S § g § § I § g s 



i 



VALUIt or SPECIFIC GNAVITr 

DASID OH VOLUME WHEM aNCEN 

AND WEMHT WNEH OVEN OHV 

VSBBSk oveh as2 



O.SO TO 0.S2 



0.4* TO O.M 



0.4* TO 0.4a 



□ 
□ 

□ 



a44 TO 0.4* 



0.42 TO 0.44 



a40 TO 0.42 



aM TO a40 



aM TO 0.M 



UNDER 0.M 




MM 
LETTER 

H' 

l* 

K' 

J* 

I* 

M* 

•' 

f 

I' 

0' 

e' 
r 

ti 

I 

T 
X 
W 
V 

u 

T 
II 

a 

R 

N 
M 
L 
K 
J 
I 
N 

a 
r 

E 
D 

C 
B 
A 



HEIMT 

FROM 6R0UR0 

IN FEET 



M> 



IMMIUU MM 74S St6 1(>4 lU 



lit 

114 

lie 



N 
M 
•0 



n 
w 

70 



M 
M 
4« 

42 
M 
34 

SO 
2« 

22 

It 
14 
10 

• 

2 




&IH.K NUMMR& 



(MSTANCC TthM PITH ST TRCC MCKtS 



Kii. 



38.--lJiagrani illustrating variation of propirtics thronghont Iree 1, Shipment 2. 
S|M.'citic gravity liast-il on volume green ami weight oven dry. 



NtT 
LCTTtn 



WkUM* or CRUSNNM STMNOTH 

AT MAXIMUM LMO 

M BOUNDS PCR SaUAlK INCN 




13*14 n«l2 MM 7U MC M4 lU S M K 

STICK HUHKMS MSTANCI FROM PITH Of TRtl. INCHtS 

Ik,. ,«, Diagram illiiM rating; variation of pro|XTtios throuEhmit I'rce 1, Shipment 
Maxinuim crushinK strength in coniprusNiun paralkl to ^;r.iin. 



NIMHT 
FROM CROUNb 



IM 

o« 

IM 
IM 

na 
»• 

114 
IM 



N 
•« 
M 
M 

n 

n 

T* 
70 
M 
«2 
M 
M 
SO 
4« 
42 

la 

M 

10 
H 

22 
19 
14 
M 

• 

2 




2.— 



tfTTCT 



v«Lun or MOOULUt or nurruRi 

M tMTK MNDIM 
IN POUNDS MR MUAM WCM 

^^1 OVIN 



7500 
7000 TO 
•900 TO 

UNDCR 



HCNHT 
mOM MWUNO 

M mx 




ntHiisn KI0 7S8 M« }k4 isa o 



IM 



lit 
114 
MO 



M 

M 



n 

M 
TO 
M 
•2 
SO 
M 
SO 
4« 
42 
N 
M 
W 
2« 
2t 
I* 
14 

• 

2 




STICK NUMMNS 



MSTMKI rROH riTH or TMI MCHIS 



Fu.. 40. 



-Dia«rani illustratinR variation of properties throUKhout Tree 1, Shipment 2.- 
Mo<lulus of rupture in static bending. 



'^mmmm^m 



m^mm 



I 



**UN» or MOMTUM coNnirr. 

■MCO ON WIMHT or WOCO 
»NIH OVIH DNY. 

rtnciMT 






ovm 50 



10 TO 50 



uHon w 




MMNT 

m MM) 
M ruT 

154 



IM 



aSMUCU MiW TK8 it* 3C4 I&2 S W IS 

STICK NUMMRS DMTANCt FMW PITH CT TMEI MCMIS 

FlC. 41.— Di.iKnini illu^traliiit; variation of pro|Hrlies thruiiKlioiit Trie 1. Slii|)nur 

Moi>niri Content. 



IM 

IM 
NO 



M 
M 
M 

M 

n 
n 
•H 
■m 



M 

M 



M 
30 
M 
22 

M 
14 
M 

• 

2 




■snn 



•^m 



^^ 



APPENDIX 

OITIINI OF PROCUAMMK OF TF.STS ON SI'IU IMKNS FRIK FROM 

I)I:FF.( TS 

Sroi'i oi Iwisru.ATlos. This strii's of it-^ts will 1h' txiindcd to iii< lu<l<', 
j'\i'iiliial!\ , .ill ( .madiaii s|H'i'ii's of roniiiu'rcial iiiiporlanci'. Fur <'.icli s|K'cit>' 
liiatrrial will 1)i' lakcil, liltiiiiatcly, from a^ iii.uu localilif^ a> in.iy Im' lUTi-ssarN 
I'l fairl)' ri'pn'M'iit v.iriatioiis of urowlli condition- occurring; ll)roiij;lioiit ihr 
roninuTcial raiiKi'iif tluit spi-iics, l)ut until all the more imporianl limlicrs li,;\r 
Iwt'ii iiivi'sti^atrii niaicrial lor iMch s|H'cit's will In- taktii from our i\ pic.il lo<alit\ 
only. Id lilt' cast' of 1>oiikI<is lir an cxivplioii to this riili- was jnadi- in order to 
obtain at once more complete dat.i renurding this v»'ry ini|Mjrtant limber s|K't les. 

MatI'.kiai,. I'rom each locality, for any sjK'cies, live reprex'niatis i- trees 
are taken. 'I'hese trees, which are of commercial si/.e and a|)pro\im,iiely avera^ji- 
age, are ideiitilied in the forest b\- jH'rsons capable of detenninin^' the botanical 
Sfx'cies, full notes U'lng madi" by the collector as to the conditions, in regard 
to soil, climate, .iiid sil\ ictiltural considerations, under which the timber grt'w. 
From each tree one four-loot bolt is i iken, usii.ilK' the top four-foot bolt of 
the sixti'eii-foot butt loj;, thi'sc- bolts providing m.iterial for tests to (leti.Tmin<' 
the averag*' [iroiHTties (in the green condition) of the wood of that -.pecies 
grown on that site. 

The test slicks, as sawed, are of sutTicieiit si/.e to |M'niiit of liiii>liiiig to 
2 by 2 inches— the stand.iril si-ction of all test pieces cut from thiin. The 
other dimensions of thesi' specimens are given Ih'Iow in connection with .i detailed 
description of the various tests emploved. 

I)i;taii.s ()I- Tl>riNi; Miitiiods. The various mechanical tests and deler- 
miiiatioTis of physical and structural pro|H.'rties emploved, and the mmiber of 
each macle for e\er\- four-foot bolt, are as follows: 



1. MidiAMi At. ricsrs 

(1) St.itic Mending. Oni' s[)ecimen from each of 50 [kt ci-nt of tlii' test 
sticks.' 

(2) Impact Mending. Six spi'cimens; two from near tin- heart, two from 
near tln' |ieripher\ , two from sticks of a\erage growth. 

(.<! Compression parallel to grain. One sjjccinien from e\er> stick. 

i4) Compression perpendicular to grain. One s|)ecimen front e.icli of IS 
per cent of tlu' sticks. 

(.s) }|ardness. One specimen frojn each of 25 jK'r cent of the slicks. 

(6) Shearing parallel to grain. Six speciniens; two from a stick" near the 
heart, two from a stick near the periphery, two from a stick of average growth. 

^See Fig. 4.*. Onp sptHMmrn i^ taken from each p.iir 'tn .ill ra!»|.-< two Mi«»(inirns arc takrti from tlie samp 

of stick;*. !>>■ " pair " tx-init nu'ant atiy oii'I-nuiiiU-ri-,! ;*tirk am] prcp-utHl so .is to Kive. our a radial, and onr a 

stick and the next liiKher even-nuniliered stiik of the tangential failure, l" Kadial ' or 'tangential " to tlie 

same direction in the tree. .\n even di»trihuti<m of the rinK^ of Krowth.) 
sliecinienH Ihroinjhoiit tlie cros-s-wction i.s thus secured. 



SI 



(7) Cl.-avanr. Six -IKrimrn^; !«,, fr„jn ., Mi.k lu ir tllr hr.irl, Uu, li.,|ii 
.1 stick iifar till' iMTiplifiy, iu„ truiii a Muk of av.Ta^o Krnwth. 

IH) 'IVi.sion iHTiH-nditular t., Kraiti. Six sp. . ij.uns; two Iron, a stick 
mar itu- luari. two Iron, a Mi. k n, ..r ih,. ,,,n|,lurv, tu , Iron, a sti.k ol av.rat;,. 
urowtl.. " 



2. 1)1 II KMIN.\IIO\s <.|. I-IISM. Al \M> sTRKrikAI l'knlMl<ril> 

Ml Moi.-(;ir.- omin,, (hi,. .I.tcriiiinalion nia.lc .m cv.rv n.r. hani.al i. M 
s|«'<'in.i'n. 

I.') r.o|„,rii..„ ol M.nm,. . woo,| ijair « |i. One .!<■., •miii.ati.,n lor ra.-l. 

stji k. 

(.«' I<at<- ..I Kiouih iriTii;s ,Kr in.lii. One (l.l.miinalion lor caili Mirk. 

(4i rroportiou ol sapwoil. ( hir (itt.m.ii.ation for tarh stick. 

i.ri Spccihc Kraxity an.j vojun.ctric sl.rinkanc. Six sprcim.i-' ; two fr.m. 
mar the l.cart, t«o from near tlic pcriphcrv , two fron. sli, ks of a\.ra;;c ^;ro^^tl. 

(Ol I.mc.r .-hrinka^;,. (ra.lial an.i lanv;,i.lial f. tlic urowlh-rinKs.. Two 
specimens; one r,i>lial. (.ne tanKcJitiai. 

The ellecl of air-<lr\ in^ up, ii nnrhanical aii.l phvsical properties i> investi- 
Kale.l l.y testing; >|Hcinu ns from tuo .ontiKlious four-foot l,olts from on.' tree 
half the -)H.c.men. hein^ teste,! ^;r,,n, half alhr air-,lrxi„K. (One of th,'s,. .«,. 
holts IS ,.ne ol the live m,ntiom.,| above, the ,.ther a sixth, a.hiitional l.olt .lit 
unmediately adjoniiilK it either alioM^ or below .) 

The variation of pn.p, rtic's \vith ,liHer, nt positions in the tr,c i, inviMi^at,,! 
l.v tesliiiK s|Hwin,ens ,nt from u,v,ssiv,- four-foot iM.hs comprisinK the entire 
menhantaMe length of one av.TaK,' tn^', for ea,h s|H-ci, - 

All mat,ri a! is ,.ir, fully marke.l l.> the ,-ollector an,l shipp,-,! to th,' lal.ora- 
ton.s m th,. lo^;, Ih,. bark In-ing left intact an.l th,- , n,ls paint.d to prevent 
evaporation ol n.oisture. It i^ foun.l that man rial >o tr,.ati,l can be ki-pt in 
the finrn coiul.'i.,,. tor consi,], r.ible p,rio.is of tin.,. At the laboratories the 
loKs are cut up mto t,st .sticks ,.s re.|uire,l for t,stinK, in .„ronlan,e with the 
s, un.e indicate,! in I'iK. 4.' «hich .shows the s. .n.lar.l sau it.K .liayran. as sfn- 
c.ll,(l on the end of a !,.« just b, lore sawing-. It will be not,,! that tlie sti,ks 
are tak,-n two abreast alonj. the nortli-s,.uth an,! c.ist-w,st <lian.et,rs, mat.rial 
repres,ntalive ol all con,litions of growth throughout th,' lo^ luing in thi. way 
obla.ne,!. Iron, the sect,.r-shape<l portions left after s.uvin^. in this wax are 
. ut sp,.cimi.ns for the .h'tiTmhiation of lin.ar skrinkage, an.l anv oth.r p.Vces 
that may be re,|.iii, d f„r a,hlitional mi.sc,llam-ous tests. 

The metl.o,!.^ followed in makhin tluse tests an,i d.nenninations are ,les,rib,'d 
in ,letail in the lollowin^': — 

Miaii.WK ,\i. Ti sTs 

Ti:.ST NO. 1. ST.MIC HIADIMi 

Specimen.- Clear, straiRht-Kraine,!, 2 by 2 bv ,^(l inches. 
Tesling Machine. Iniver.sal, .?0,{)()0 lbs. capacitv-. 

'f ■.il.ublions of spi-cific lir.ivity a„. .Uso ma.li' lor jll mcch.inkal test 
specimens of tests Nos. 1. 2. J. 4. an,| 5. 




Tic. 42. -Mitlr^.'l of cuttinj; tc-t •<tvks from lo^. Slariilard s.iwini; <ll.iKr,iin >tiii( illiil 

on iT'l of lot, (ir.piratory i" -viwinK. Thu kttir-. iiidicati- the i).>int-. of 

the rompass. 

62 



J 



Mt .^ ^^ 



t..i 

Atratiffncnt As shimn in | i^; )< tlic N|H-,ijiun is -iipi'irtiMl at (he mel- 
on knife «(Ik- s. "11 I s|i.iii iif JM inchts. I<i,llcr luMri)ii;s Uiwtf-n tin- [il.if.- 
UfKiii wlii( li the 111(1- of the s|m( iim-ii rest, ami rlu kiiil. i|>;i- snp|«)ris. rrdii. t> 
end frirlii)ii tu a imii tiiiiin. i he knilc cdjiiH U-ar a^;aiiist lianUmil sicil 
scats, on siii>|iMrtin>j l>l' ks, which n-^t ujioii .1 ginit r < i sUtl I " Ihmmis, ami 
'h(s4' ill turn lire larritij on the wiMKliinn i.ililc of tlu' usiinji mat liinc. 

Load is .ijrplUd coiuiiiiioiisK ihrounh a wofMlm luadiii^' Mot k ,)' the 
crntre |x)int .>( the sjian, st'\tral linn stfd (ilaifs l«iii|; ii\tfr[M)s. In'iwiin th«* 
liearin^; lilock and lh<' s|M,iiii,ii l>> rfdiuc IihmI irii-hini; Tlu -(x . d nl disi cut 
of the lo.iilinjj hi a«l is ()• 1 IS iiuh [ht iiiiniiir. 

!n i.rdrr 10 ciisuir iiniforinitv o( n ill- all si" m'uhs art- ti -ted with radial 
surfans \rrtii.il, li. all side u|). 

/V/t>rwa//o«. - iHllfitions at ccntn' ^|l.;H .irr i u a-iirtd !i\ a six'i iai dt tiii IO- 
meter which is laftird on small nails dri\ 11 into tin ^|Mii)inii ui the iKiiiial 
axis dirc(tl\ aliovo tlu- hcariiiv; |)oinls. 1 he indicator of this detlectonuter is 
sil|>|K>rted, liv imaiis of a (ord, Iroiii a small nail >»■! in lia' s|H'ciriirii, on the 
r. ii'iil .,\is at nii(l-s|>aii. As the -peiimen Ihi.iIs the ,iidicator drops, th, 
aiciiiiKt oi d( fU'i tion heinv; shewn on ilie -cale. Re.idinv;- ot dellectiun ,ire i.ikeii 
t'l tip Vi an St O-Dl inch, ti.r 1 ach 1l)0-|iound iiicreim m of li'.id, and a load- 
d- 'len ion curve pint hmI. 

A'csh// l-rori theload-detleclioncurvi the Inllow iiig(|ti,iiiiiiiesareolitaine(l : 

M«..»lircs of strength; lilire sin ss at el.istic Iniiil, and nwililhis of rupture. 

MeasL-e of stiffness: MimIiiIii • f el.-licitx 

Measures of toughness: WoC, • (.L.stir limit (el.i-iic risdieiu-e' work to 
niaxiMnni load, aiul tui.d ■\ s o • : ' ilellectioii 01 failure to siip()ort 2(M)- 
ponnd loadj. 

formula 

I'i' 'le stress at 

' it 

I 

Mudiiliis oi ail ti , 

Moiliiliis of .1 i>ticit\ 

\\ iirk to elastic iiiiiii 



Work lo iii.ixinuiiii load. ,imi tiaal work = 
Where - 



- I. c 
!'• 1.' 

I" A 
2 l.hl. 

K X Area under load-deflection curve 
bhl. 



i" = load It elastic limit. 

r = maximiim load. 

A = deflection at el.istic limit. 

l» = l>readth of specimen. 

h = height of siK-cimen. 

1. = length of span. 

K = a constant, varving with the sc.ile used in plotting the cur\e. 




Fli.. I.<. Mclliocl III ii-tirii; sill. ill ( li-.ir spci iiiuris. Static lifiiiliiiK. 



65 



I lie .irc.i under llu- loMd-ilclli-ctinii ciirvc n. liic |i(iiiii ..| ,ii,i\i,iiiiiii I.miI, 
aiil lo ilic |ic>iiii ;il whicli llic spccinicn l.iil> in >u|>;.iii ,i J(iii-|m,i.i.(! !,,,„| ,,|- 
n ,i(hi> a (Icllcctinii i>( (> iiu lie, i- inci-iind li\ |il,itil,iui( p 

A l\ |iic.il l(i.iil-(li'll(( linn ili,i^;i,mi Im ilii- ii-i i-, ~li,.uii in li- l i. 



Uip No * Slick No ^ 9 
Pi»ce No /ff Mi,V / 



TIMBER TFST LOG SHEET 

0\ CAr*«[.>» 



S9S 



sp„,„ Qpa^/os 

Kiod gl im Static 
S,i«,nin, Gr»»0 

(iradr Cftar- 


Hr 
Bmndina 


(.roup 

i„jdin, Cvnt'rt 
spa,, 28 Inch 




Ditunrc tH't*t,i, .o)L(> 




Widih of pUir 

Ma,hi„r O-50-fl 




Sp«Nl „r mjihi,,, • lOj"/ Mm 


WriKhl 'jl hanimrr 




l.fnjlh 3000" 




Widih 2 oo" 




ll,,gh, Z oo" 




( IU-- MMKlll 




tt,,,h, /^otf arms. 


K„i|is |„', „„h 




S„i,inirr»...»| 




M.,i.,iir,- 




ll.'f.^l< 





I i,i„„ Contprtsaion 
ji>HO¥Jmcl £>y fp//niir/no 
Trnjion 




■JSTl.i 



I'll.. U.--I'\pir,il l,,,i,l ,1, il,, 11.111 ili.iv:i,,ih. si,,ii, liiii.liiij 



66 



TKST NO. 2. IMPACT BliNDINd 



Specimen. — Clear, straight-grained, 2 by 2 by -<0 inches. 

Testing Machine. — HatT-Tunier impact machine, 50-, 100-, and 2.St)-pound 
hammers. 

Arr(iiiitcincnl.—Tht' sjiecimen i.s supported at the ends, on a span of 28 
inches, ihrmi^h liciriiij^-plates on "V" blocks which rest on tlic bed of the 
machine. 

i.iiad is appiietl b\- drop|)ing tile loading-hammer upon tlie si'ccimen at 
mid span, the tirst drop l)eing from a height of one inch, and succeeding dr-^^ps 
fn ni he.ids increasing by 1-inch increments up to 10 inches Thcreaf«r 
drops are made .it successive increments of 2 inches, until failure. 

/Jf/orw/o/yoH.v.— Deflections of the spe imen under load and precise- heights 
of fall for the earlier drops are measured from a drop curve traced on the recording 
drum b\- a pencil secured in the hammer. A curve of deflections s<|uared, 
against corresponiling heights of drop or head, is plotted from measurements 
of the autographic drop tracings. 

Resiills. — From the " head-deflcction-squared" curve, and the data ob.served 
during the test, the following quantities are obtained: — 

Measure of strength under impact loading: fibre stress at elastic limit. 

Measures of toughness: Height of drop at failure, and work to elastic limit. 

Measure of stitTness: Modulus of elasticitv. 



Formulcc.- 



Fibre stress at elastic limit = 



,? WH'L 



Muiluliis of elasticitv = 



Jkbh= 
I.= XF.S.at K.L.. 



6Ah 



\VH' 

Work to elastic liniit= ~rrr~ 

bliL 

Where:— 

\V = wiiglit of hanuner. 

H' = heigiu of drop at elastic limit. 

A= iviural deflection of specimen .ii el,isti<' liinii. 

I'.S. at fM,. = fibre stress at elastic limit. 

I) =bre.idth of specimen. 

li = height of specimen. 

1, =span. 

Fig. 40 sIkjws a l\ pical autographic cur\e as traced by the pencil in the 
drop hammer upon the recording drum. The nio\ements of the hanuner can 
be accurately traced by following the cur\c. Note the initial tlrop followed 
by considerable deflection of the specimen, and reboinul of the hammer, and 
successiveK decreasing deflections and rebounds until the hammer finally comes 
to rest. Succeeding drops show a pennani'nt set ot tlie specimen (m part due 
to bruising of the upper surface at point of impact) setting in, and gradually 
increasing. The horizontal " base line " is drawn when the hammer is at rest 



ifa. 




{•IG. 45. — Mctliod ol tt^tinj; small i liar >im< iinons. — Impa';t boiKliiiR. 



•7 



N'i 



■^[i 



M[ 



1'^ J 



. Jill jI^JhiIi-JIi 



111. Wi I \ |iir,il ,iuin^i,i|.|ili iu,v, iri'ill'V Ir )|i li.iiiiiiiiT Inip.i' I I'lri'lin.; 



60 



upon Ihv •.|H(iiin'ii hiforf ilic lest i^ ],v^i,u. lln.ilh . \Uv haninuT drops iliroiit;li 
the >p»<inu'ii, \\hi( h i- loinpli'trK lirokcii l.\ liii- Mow. 

In Via,. 47 i> shown ;i lypical " lic.ul-di'tliciion-MUMriil " nirvi' a- i)loii((l 
Inini inc.iMirinu'nts of the ,iuio);rapliii' (urvi. 



Mm,. N., /? SI,'. I, N., -V-// 

I' \. I c \i,.k a 

-I" II. Ovcif/o-t Fir 

K,.iii „( I, .1 inrtflact Qtndiog '7 

v.,.-.n„,< Grttn 

,,..„i, C/ear- 



I .M.I.,,,, Cvnt>-9 
in.,,..:.. [».«. ,, , .iL. 

W.,1;;, ..I |.l.,t.- 

M.,.i,.„ Ot 2s° ■ ^ 
-i.,-.,i.,i „.„i„... 

w.,.h.. .11,, ..,.,, 5i;^s* 

I ..,..,1, ^9 90 " 
w.i.i, Zoi ' 

II ,sii, 2 Ol ' 



TIMBER TEST LOG SHEET 



U.sli 

S,|. 

R.i.i- „, ,:..(, 

V.,„„„,»,.,| 

M, «.,„,,■ 

II.'.,,, 



'5J5 ^/-/rvj 



I,,!,,, Co/Tyj Jolo¥J»d 



I ? I 





28743 -« 



Ik.. 47. lyiMiMl h,.,i<l-,l,ll,., ii,,ii-,i|iKin-(l . .ir\,-. iMip.m 1, n,|lTi- 



70 



I 



11^1 N<,. i. ( ()Ml'WI.^>liiS I'MiMIIL .11 I.KAIN 

Sl,r,;>i!n,. ( K-.a-. Mi.ii'Ju-ui.iin. -I, 1 \>^ 1 hs S \r.\u-^. I'm.U c.i.vliilK 

SllUilll'l. 

'/'.•.N/ii/i: Maiiniir. I nivcr-..!. <(MMMI mM.0,(1(I(I ikUiIki-. .'.iiu.-ilx . 




(.icii. r,il .irraiiKi-;!" lit m ai)i'.ir,itu-. 



.^- ,iii" ^.-alM.n ilir !<«i.ili.- inicror .-.iini... . ..m.-i.-! lu-tr i-il-lit» arr- i" 



1 lln. M I- l.ilil.-'. 



s,„-kr> ..,.rii._ rn-.in iiir,i..nii .listrihiit ii ^t, ,,1 |,.a<l. ;i,i- in Mini rc-liii.L; on 

the \\..-i^»W !•*•■>*•' "I 'li'- i^msi m.irhiiu- Vhr !..a.ini^ !i. a.l .,1 lli. trslm^ 
.uad.iiK- U^.'trs as-.«J»«l ll»i- U*v^n,\ n\ she -V'""'-" '!iriHiL;h a llal i.lal.ii. 1.'>.1<1 
i- upplU'H .„niii.H.«n,.ly, iht' r.iu- ,,{ ,!i-o-iu Ml tiir l..,:Hii:^ li.a.l !..inK <> '»--t 

,^rtff^HaSsw MtitH*- are iHf^Min-; U lumuiu'.l MarUii-- nil., tini; mirror 

..\.-r ,. .i^iUKf «^»^;lll ' iiT'li'- luo in>minunf^ arc iixd, 

va«"ht*t i,^,,<.pipt>Mi<- «»«i'--"1 til' J'l*- i>i»L>i- Till' iiistrimKut>. 

whw-h .tr. .^»stti*i. u, l+-**«H1 tsvh. an- -:afl to t' iR-ari->t OdllOl inch t.ir 

._ „:' - »': ;^M .. fw ..^... till. «(.^l iTicr tll'W-llilll* VV I I ll 

^^ .ssiw Ml pl.K-.- ^f! mirn.r^ adju-u-<l, aU- rae hcaU- and tlif tiicsiopcs tlirouuli 
wtH'-i. he -^-ales an- i^^d i i>. 49>h(>v\- . i«»vr •, ivw .)f tin- sik< inU'U. l.ianiii;- 
wkK-., *«l iHsuumewt \ft'- iv- lesi- ;-^- - t*»ii coniplciid -lu' n-a<linK> <>f 
fiir i««, m»tf«mPtiT? -B^ ,*u^,^^' ,tnd a ^.iiti-1«rflcction lurvc i)lotH'(l. 




l-li.. 4''. -Mrtliit'l of tt'^tiIll; ■.iii.ill iliar -.iKclmriis, -Coniprc-^iim parallel (o i;r,iin. 
Nt-.ti vifw .-Itiiuiiii; pr. iiniMi iMMtiiiti-hl.k. '^s, .III' I HKMlili-il MailfiH imrroi . .imiirfs.st)imters. 



72 

Results. Kniiii ihc Inad-tlfllcclicin dirvr an- ul)i.iiiU(l: 

Mfasiiris lit Ntrfii>;lli: Coiniirf^ivf >lri» at tla>lir limit, and iru>liiiiK 
>iri-iinlli .It inaxiiiuiin load. 

Mi-asuri- of Mil'liifss; ModiiliiN of ila>!i(it\ . 

A tNpical l(.ad-d(l1i'(ii«>ii ciirM' for tlii^ ic-t i> -liowii in li^. 5(1. 



tCIUlPPt 111 
■ ■« |*N.I«U 



Ship No X Nick N.. £ lO 
PiKfNo '^ M..k J 

sp„,„ Dou^/os Fir 

f •ruup 

l-roding 

Span 

liuuncc bd.wn ...lUr.tf AfirrVriS 

VVk.'iIi cJ pUir 

Ma<nir- O 50 fi 

Sp«J o( mat hint -OZA/ Min ■ 

Wcigtil of hammer 

Lrnflh *-00 

Width 

Hrlfhl 

»«i«hi JFO< arms. 

Sap 

RtnRi J-i*. .iKh 

SiimnrrvitKj 

M'Vilurp 

llrinn 



h.iiur. S^mor in hody 



TIMBER TEST LOO SHEET 

I c«ni mooucn uaoMtowil 

or CANADA 





0'« ago 



In.. ,^(). Tyini 



:il lii.il ilrllii li.iM ili.i^rani. I (.nipri-M..M ]i,ir.Lllt I in nr.Liii. 



'%T. 



n 



h'onntiliv. 



( uinprc'ssiM' siri'ss at fla>iii limit 



!•■ 



Crii^iiinn >trfiintli .it iii.i\imiim l<«,i«l 



l>h 



Modulus of t'l,'isti('it\ 



I.' I" 

Ml A 



Wlurc: 

V = load at clasiii liniil. 

I' - tola! cnirNliiiii; loail. 

I.' = IciiUlli o\tT whit'li t i>iii|)ti-.sioiis ari' incaxiirt'd. 

I) .\\u\ li =<linu'ii--iiiii» (if >.|M( iimn cross-M'clion, 

A = comnri ->iiiii ,il il.clir limii 



Tlv'^I Ml. 4. I (i.,l'KI -,-^|(l\ I'l KI'ISIMi I I \K |il.,l< 

S[)riinicii Clc.ir, >lr,iiv;lil-t;r,ii!i((|. 1 li\ 2 liv 6 iiiclii-. 
I'l'-^liii.; Matliiuv. I iiiscrsai, lO.tliMi iioiincU caii.n it\ 



MS 




In. >\. Ml {ihi.l (.1 ii-iinn -in.ill ( li.ir >|i,iiiiii 



ir >|i,iniliri-. I •,iill|ii. ^^n.n p; r, . • li- iil.ir i,, 



Andii'^nnrnt. Tlic s|H'(inioii is c.inii'd dirtcilv c!] \\\v \\ ■,!■ :,- table mI 
llif li-iiii^' iH.u hnif. Load is apolicd roiiliminiisK in a ra.i'il ^uii.i.-.' (if ili,. 
hpft iiiicn lioiii ihc iuadiii)^ held of the Icstiti^r niacliiiic iliroii>;li .i i^la. .:' inclius 
ill widiii .iM of Kii>;tli ^rcatiT than the width of the sixci-.ncii Hie r.iu- ol 
descciii of till- loa«liiiK' lu'a<l is ()()24 inch per iiiiiiiilc. 



74 



Deformations. IK'funii.iiiniis ..f ilic s(h« inicn art' nuMMind 1)V .i ili-lltTto- 
Iiut.T, \\\v l( '.■■r ,1 ■>, ,.| which iHMf, an.iiii-i llif loaihnu pl.itrn. Kr.i.liiinH ar.- 
taken t<' iht in 



(Mil imh fur i-aih 2511 poiiiul iixTriticiit of lua<l iitilil 



tMMtfl 


III 
I«I4 




9»|> N.. 


i x,.,k s 


. A* tf 


Plw. N . 


/%/ M ,i 


4 




Doua/aj 
Char- 


F.r 
Purp 


l.r.<lf 




C'tiMip 






Inarting 






Spin 






Diw»nrr l>ri»vt-n . j!Uf 




Width (i< pU(r> ^ 


Wci|ht 
Unt'li 
Widlh 


« oo' 

» oo" 




Nnihi 


' »9 




Cril»« l.<n 




Wn|h 


»<»7 9 


rms, 


S.P 






(tin,. 


per imh 




Summ 


rrw ' -1 




Mn>< 


,r 





riMBER TEST LOQ SHEET 




Kn.. 52. -lypi' ■' I'Mi! .Ii lliction ili.i;;nini — ("omprc-i 

■J rain. 



"rjn-ndicular to 



75 

tlif Int.il (Irliirin.itiiiii i> (II iiidi, a luiiil-ilitlt'i limi <iir\f liciiij; pluiitd ,i>« tin- 
lot priK'i'i'fU. 

Results. Thr rompnssivc stress al <'la>iii limit 'pir si|iiarf iiu li nf area 
iiiiilrr In.iiliiiK platci i^ ( ali nlatcil I'ruin tlir load al i lasiic limit, as (K-tcnninril 
Ifoin llif load-di-llcctiuii ciirvr. 

I'm- 32 ^ll()^^s a t\ piial hail dclln liuli < iir\i a> plullcd lur lliis lot. 

II s| so. 5. II Vkiisi -.« 

Specimen. (Icar, slraiKlil-:;raiiiii|, 2 \>v 1 hv (> inches. 
/■(•v/;>;;' Miuliiiic. I iiiMT- il. iO.OIIU pmitMN tapacilv . 




I 



.S.i. Ml llloil III li-l iiiv ^m.ill 



.ir ^jn-t llllr 



ll.ir.lu.' 



. Irn.'w^'cij I ;;/. The spfcijntn ii>t.-. dinitlv mi iln- w.u'ii"'-; taMc of the 
li -liii^ macliiiir, tlu' hiirdiii'ss test-tool, a ^leel li.ir with hemi->;)lu'ric il end of 
I' 444 iiirh dianicterd scpiare centimetir pruiected .ire.i) heiiii; lixicl in the 
loading; head of tlii' miichine. The pciu tratioii of ilie hemisphericd ' id of 
llie iiar is limited to nj22 imli li\- ,i eup-sli,i|)( d washer, through a hole in 
the IhjUoiii of which il protrudes. The load at the iiist.inl of cojiiptele |)eiie- 
iration, as di leniiined h\ the hindinj; i" the washer lietween ilie end of the 
teel liar and the siK-cimin. is taken to he a measure of the ii.irdnoss. Two 
IKiU'trations ar<- made on one tangential, two on one raiii.il, ,ind one on each 
!•'.!<! -inrf:!!!-. '! lie rnnKtant rate of il-.-'-ont of ihe lo.idi!!;.; b.ead is ()-2.s inch. 
JHT niiniile 

Fi^;. .s > ^liow - the general ,irr,ingeir.ent of tl testiiM ' .md the specimen. 







'^ 



MICROCOPY MSOIUTION TEST CHART 

ANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No 2i 



I u 

1.25 



f^ 13.6 



m 

12.2 
2.0 



1.8 



14 IIIIII.6 



^ APPLIED KVHGE Inc 



'■€; *8; - OJOC ■ Pfion« 
■ '16) 2ea - ^989 - Ca- 




Kli.. 54. -Milliiid (if ii'stiiii; Miiall I'K'ar >pii iniin>. Micarinn p.irallil to ^niiii. 



':Kmm^: 



77 

TKST NO. 6. SIIKAKINC !' \H.M,l.i:i, T(1 (iRAIS 

Specimni. Clear, straight-grained, 2 li\ 2 iiiclics in section, 2 'j inches 
long. A I2 !>>' 'j inch check is ciii in the top end alonj; one ed^;e, leaving; a 
projecting shoulder on the specimen. 

j^f«(7n'HP. - I'nivi-rsal. ,?().()(»() pounds cap.icity. 

Arratiiii'mcnt. The ypeciiiU'n is placed in a shearini.; i>lock which rests 
dire( tiv on the weiKhing table of the testing machine. .A .-hearing plate which 
slides in a grooM' in the shearing block i- tixed in the loading head of the machine, 
and hears agaiiist the ]>nijectiiig shoulder of the specimen. Tlu- specimen in 
the shearing block rests on a sti^ei jilate. the edge of whicl: dinars thegrooNc 
of tlic shearing plati' 1>\ 1 inch, and is hacked 1)> a pi. Ue with adjusting screws 
to hold it in position. IThis ])late has been retnoMil in the illustration in 
order to show the spi'cinun more cie.irh I The speed of descent ot the lo.iding 
head is OOl.^ in( h | er minute. 

Ri'siilts. Tile ni.iximum lo.id i-. oh>er^ed and tlie inaxinuim she.iring 
slrengtli calculated therefrom. The direction of the failure' (whether radial 
or tangential with ropecl o the rings of growth) is noted, and result.^ are cl.issihed 
accordingly. 

ri;si N(p 7. ( 1.1: \\.\(.i-; 



Spcrlnicn. Clear, straight-grainid. 2 h\ 



inches. (Ill 



end to a depth of I inch h\- a circul.ir hole 1 inch in di.imeter 1 cent re ', iiK h 
from end of specimen), honing a nit splitting length of three inihis. 

Marliinc. IniMTsal. .?().0()() pounds cap.icity. 

Arran'icmoi!.- The specimen is heUl in two s])eci.il grips which .ire secured, 
one in the loading head and one in the upper weighing head of the le-l ing machine. 
The end of the s])ecimen hutts against the inner face of the gri])-. tiie line ot jiull 
thus heiiig a (onstant distance from the end of the s])ecinien, anil Irom the 
lini- of maximum tress (former dist.mce ', inch, l.itter ' j incii). l"ig. .^.^ shows 
the arrangement of the ajiitaratus. 

Tile spei'd of descent of the lo.iding head is ()-2,S incii ])er niimile. 

Results. The load at failure is observed and thi' splitting strength per 
inch of width of s])ecimen c.ilculaled therefrom. Tiie direction of the lailurr' 
(whether radial or tangential with res])ect to tlu' rings of growth) is notid. .uid 
results are classified accordingK'. 

ii;sT NO. 8. ti:nsi(in im kimadk '. i..\k ki (.k.\i\ 

Specimen. Clear, straight-grained. 2 b\ 2 inches section. 2'j iiu lie- lung, 
cut across both ends to .1 deptl. of ,' inch by ciriul.ir holes 1 inch in diameter 
(centres \ inch from ends of specimen), leaNing a net bre.iking area ot 1 b\- 2 
inches. 

.irraii'^emeiit. The S|>ecimen is held in two s|)ecial grips which .ire secured, 
one in the loading head anil one in the upper weighing head ot the testing machine. 



two si«'« iriu-ns iirc in fv.ry .n,..*- t.ikcii Itniii tin- ...iiiu- tf-t .-Ih k 

anci pn-pari'.! w as to ni\r. oiii- a r.uli.il lailurc 

ami one a tanKi-ntial taittirc. 




Fig. 55. — Method of tt'stin^ small rU'ar sp<(inicns.--( icava;;f. 




Fig. 56.— Methoii uf testing small iliar ^pcc iiiuiis.— Tiiisioii perpendicular to grain. 



so 

Hall-and-Mickrl lieariiiKs permit of slight adjustnu'nts of tiic grips to compensate 
for any inaccuracies in the preparation of the .-.jjecimen anil to ensure iinifoim 
ciistriliiilion of the lf)a(i. The speed of descent of the loading head is 0-25 
inch ])er minute. 

Refills. The breaking load is observed and the tensile strength pen)en- 
dicuhir to the grain calculated therefrom. The direction of failure, (whether 
radial or tangential with res])ect to the rings of growth) is noted, and results 
are dassihed accordingly. 




l-Iii. .^., l)r\iiij,' nvun and hal.irirc used in m.ikini; miii^luri' driv rriiin.itii>ns. 
DhTKKMINATIDNs (IF I'lP.-HAI. AM) SlKKllRAI. PhoI'KKTI KS 



i)i:ri:RMi\Ari()N 1, aioisti rk (OMi.Nr 

Spctinifii. Special discs for the detirniinatioii of moisture content are 
cut from all mechanical test jjieces after te.-t. In the case ot shear, cleavage, 
and tension tests these con.sist of irregular |)ortions split ofif adjacent to the 
failure. Fn. n all other te .t pieces :i disc 1 inch iii length and of the full sectio.i 
of the specimen is sawed out from a ]).»int near the failure. Typical moisture 
discs for the \arioiis mechanical tests are shown in Fig. .^7. 

Procedure. Discsare wtighed, immediatcK' after the>- are cut. to the nearest 
01 gram, dried to const.mt weight in an oven at 100° C". and again weighed. 
M( isrurcs are calculated a.-» pen lul.iges of i\\v o\en-iir\ weight oi the wood. 

Electric (Aens are empKned for drying the discs. (See Fig. 57). 



SI 

Dl-.TI KMIN A I KiN-' 2. .? AM) 4. Kl\<.^ I'l k IM II, I'l K( 1 \l \(.l ill si MMI K-W i h il>, 
AM> I'1:K( IN I A(.i. i>\ --\1'\\(M)|) 

.S'/>C(7»;( «. Ksliiiiiitiiiiis (if riiij^s jicr iiicli. )i(r( inl.iuc nt MiiiiniiT-wiinil. 
and jicrct'iitajre of saii\v(iii<l arc made mi ilic (li>(> i iii fur ilic ilticriniiiaiidii nf 
moisliirc (cmltnt, as (liMrilicil almM. 

I'roicdurr \ line 1 inch in length is <lta\vn nn llic ( mss ■.cciiim nl llic 
disc in .i raiiial direct icin so as tn jiass tlinuijili a rcyiiin (it a\ i rayc dc\cl(i]niicnl . 
The Idtai wi'lth (if sunnncr-wodd crossed li\ ihis line is e-iinialcd li\ sjsk inj; 
(iff acciinilihili\eK , (in a p.iir nf di\i(icrs, tlie width of ihi- sninnicr-wdod iiand 
for each t;ro\\ ih-rinji in succession. 1 lie distance liel\\(<n ihe poinis ot llic 
dividers on the completion of this o])i'r.itioii for the iiu.isuriii ini h Iciiylh. in 
hundredths of an inch, eciiials niiniericalK the |UT(i iilaj^e i I siiiiniu r-wood. 

The numlicr of riiii;s ^ler inch is deterniiiu d siiiuill.nieoiisly with the esli- 
ination of siiiniiuT-\\ (cd Ii\ noting the niinilier oi lirow tii-i iii^s i ri s^i d liy the 
nieasiiri'd inch. 

Ihe amount of sapwiK d if an\ ' present in the sli(k is e-iin ,;i((l li\ cali ii- 
latinsi tlu' amount ip| the cri^ss-sectii ii area of the di^c in w liii ii -,C|pu. ( il .i|. pears, 
and exiiressini; this as a iiercentai;e ol the tot.d .ire.i. 



i)i;ii;KMiNAri(iN .->. 



■•I'lCIIK (.KWriS AMI Mill Ml INK sHI<I\KA(.I. 



Sptriwoi. Clear. 2 \>\ 2 li\ (< iiulus. 

Procediirf. Determinations ii specitic ^ra\it\ and Milumelrii shriiikiiye 
ari' made when the siiecimen i- in the i;reen. the .iir-(lr\ , and ihe (Aeii-drx 
conditions. 

Specitic jira\ities are deleimiiu-d !■> c.ilciilalint; tile lalio of the wiit;lit 
of the pecinien to the weight ( f an e(nial \('liin'e (f water. The forn er (|ii,mtily 
is olilained directly in the usual manner, the iiU'tliod ot (leleiminini; the latter 
is as follows: 

.A \e-sel containing water is mounted on one scale-iian ol a lial.nnc. and 
the lialance is brought into I'liuipoise by suilaliK coiinlerb.ilancint; uilli le.id 
shot. I he specimen held impaled on the point ol a lit;ht stttl n d i- then ((ini- 
pletelv immersed in the water, care beini; takdi tliat no water (Aerllows ihe 
container and that the sjiecimen dois not t( iich the \cssel at an\ ponil. and 
the balanci- is r.ijain restored to e(|iiilibriuni by adding slandard weights to the 
(i])iiosite scale-]'an. 'ihe Weight re(iuin,d to restore the balance in tlii~ \\.!\ 
is the weight of a \(iliniu' of watcT ecpial to the \()lume of tlu' spicimen. If 
expressed in grams it is also numerically tciual to the \(iliime ol the spi'i iiiien 
expressed in cubii centimeters. Thi' specimen whin in tlu' (Aen-dry condilion 
is dip])ed in p.uaitine before immersing in water. Tlu- arraiigituenl of the 
apparatus made use of is shown in Fig. 5JS. 

V'olumetri.' shrinkage figures, based on \(ilumes dettrniiiud as expl. lined 
alxAe, are expressed as jierceniages of the volume wh '11 green. 

Calculations of the s]iecihc graA'ities of all niech.micil ti ^i pieces wliidi 
are omjilele prisms in shapi> are also nKide on tl'.e basis of l!;e weiijht ;!i!(! 
dimensions of these s|)erimens, as detennined in connect io;i with the mech.iiii- 
( al lists. These sjiecil ■ gravit\' figures are i-xiiressed both in terms of the 




Fig. 58. — Method of testing small clear specimens. — Specific gravity and volumetric 

shrinkage. 



\\K-\^\\t <if till- ^jiriim-ii .t^ ir^tol .m<i i »t tlif wrii^^ht (t\rii-f|i\. Imt in ItotU 
f.isi ^ tin \Mliimi- iiHi*! i^ till' \Mliimf' .it tin' time tin* iiiii h.niir.il Irsis urn- 
lu.idf.' 

in IlKMlNMinN (i I.IM \U -IINI\K\..| 

Sf>r<inif}i, ( Icti", 1 iiy 1 li\ 1 unlu->, tin- !<iu;4 (liin<'ii^i"ii in iln- dini tiitu 
ill \\lii(!i tin- shrink. im' i- tn !•»■ nuasiirtMl. tiilit-r r.nli.tl ur t.inutni i.il in iln* 
Viiitw ili-rinu^. 




I- It.. 5'». 



Miiliod ol* tf-tiri,; -inali iK.ir -pfiiiiuMi-'. - DntTmin.ilioii >>\ liiir.ir -Iiriiik.i^r. 



Prou'dnrc. I'lic Iciitith "i Lhf >]K(iiiu*ii in llu- j^tccii. tin- air-(lr\. .ind tin- 
o\cn-(lr\ (■(>ii(lili<tn i;. nK-asurtd to ilu' nearosl (l-Oi)l inch 1»> nu aiis nt llu- s]Krial 
niirronifttT KauKi* shown in Fi^^ 5'>. Shrink. ii^rs arc cxpnsM'd as pen ttua^c-^ 
of the ^rc'cii (linu-nsioiis. 



'Statenn-nt- of tiif M"'' ili<" Rr;i\il\- of woo'l ari- mn- 
sidenihly coinpiicale'l nwiiig to tlir (:oii>i'l'rati()n that 
the two f.ictors {vi/.: weiylit .imi v<ilinnr) ui>f)n whii h 
sfHTitic Kravitic^ are ba-fil ;ir«-, in thi' case of i!ii< iiih- 
stance. both variiihles cU-pcnfJinn upon the nmi'-turL' 
content. WciKht of wo<mI. of (;our<f. varit-* liirt'cily 
with the moisture cont.'nt. The vnliimc is a i onstant 
for all moistures alwve a certain critical v.ilue 'the tibr*- 
saturation point), but when tlie moisture is decreaseil 
below this value shrinkage talies pi. ice anti the volunu* 
decreases pfn^ressively as the woofi become^! drier. 
Specific Kra\;' - figures for wood are. tlierefore. ineanini;- 
iess unless tlic condition-; as to moisture content under 
which they appiy arc *;•:: ifica. 

Sppi itic gravities determined by the water displace- 
ment mcihod descritx-d alxive are strictly correct, beinij 
the ratio o; the weiKht of the wood to the wetsht of an 
equal volume of water at various stages of the seasoning 
process. Of the two specific gravity figures determined 



in '-oimcctiim wit!i tic- m^ch.in; al t<.-^t-. tint Ija-fi un 
volume and wt-i^lit as t.->ttrl. is alsrj iiuitc cturei t. 
The specilir nr.tvity ■" has.-d un voUime liiet-n and 
weiKht oven-dry " i-, howt-ver. not in reality a truf 
speiihi v;ra\ity at ail. hciiii; based un vohiitie-; and 
weights whiiJi cuiill never occur simultaneously fur 
tiir spcvinicn in nuc^Uun. 

it is. however, .i very useful Hyure. inasmuch as true 
spt-i^ihc gravitifs can h-; calculated from it with [n-rtect 
a- curacy for timber at any moisture content alx)ve the 
fibre saturation iKjint (green timber), and with fair 
accu-acy tor moisture contents between the fibre satura- 

it by a \nn entage corresiKjnding to the moisture content 
in question. In this respect this apparently anomalous 
figure is of more practical use than certain Btrictly 
correct values of the specific gravity which are of Mgni- 
ficance only for the moisture content at which they were 
determined. 



X4 



lUHi KH.kAi'in' 

Oilier |)iililii .iiidfi, (.,nt, lining; (l.!l,i n-^.inlini; llw |>rn|Miiii-, .mil < Imi.k - 
I<Ti>.lii>. lit I)()|ikI.i-. lir- 

" rni,iirli(> iitiil I'sc, (if |)i)iii;|.i^ I ir." I iiiicd Sl.ii. •- Di,)!. (ji A^ii' nil lire, 
hiroi Sin ire Hiilliiiii SS. .MiC.irMx (line .m.l J. H. Kii.ijij>. I',.. v 
I'K. 111. I)i.ii;r.imv 15. 'r,,l.li> l.>. Wa-hinylnii. 1<>1 I. 

"I'in killiil 1 )uuk1.in I'ir .\ SiiiiK of ils K.nc ,,f I hliTinr.ilii.n. I ^.iliilii\ 
;m(l SiniiKlli " liiiicd Si.itis I )i-,).iriintiil of .\L;tii iiliii.i-. I'on-. Smicc • 
Ulillcliii Hi. j. M, Kii.i,),;. I*,). 1,S. Iiv;>. ,r W.i^liiiinioii, V>\2. 

"l)oilj;l.i> lir .\ SliiiK of llir I'.n iln (0,1-1 mil Koik\ Moimi.,ji, luriiw " 
liiilcil St. Ills l)(|i,irliiuiil of .\i riciiliurc, I'on s| S,n ire ( in iil.ir \Ml I.. II. 
IVoi!iiiij;li,ini. I')!- ■>•*<■ Ill>. .<• WashiiiK'ton. I")(W. 

■■ Tcsl" of StriirliiiMl 'riniliiiv." (niifil Si.ii.s I )c,i.iriMiriil of .\uiii iilliiir, 
Forest Servile Mnlleliii \US. M(C,aiM\ (line ,i,iil .\. 1.. lleiin, l'|,. I _> V 
"Is. \||. ri^s, _"). r.il,!,.s15. W.isliiiiKion. 1'MJ. 

••SlreiiKlli \".iliies for Slrueliir.il 'riinlu rs." I'nileil Si.Ues I )e|i,irliiu 111 of 
.\i;rii iiltiire. I'oresI Service Circill.ir \^'>. Mi(,Mr\e\ (line. I',. ,S, r,il,|.., 
4. \\asl|i|,i;t,,ii, 1<)1 ' 

••Slreiii;lli 1 sis nf Si riietiiral 'riiiil.ers Trealeil 1)\ ( 'omiiien iai Wooil- 
Preserviiii; I'roi esses." InilMJ Stales I )el'arltiient oi" .\yriiiillnre Mtilleliii 
2Kf). II. S. Hell^aiiil |. A. \e\xliii. IV- I. V TaMis.v li^^s. 7, \\ .,sliinj;lon. 
l')15. 

"'reslso, 1 )oiii,las I'ir Briiluc StriiiKei-s ( '01111,., rali\e Ti st of Ifealeil anil 
Intreateil Douglas Fir Striiii;crs to 1 )eleriiiiiU' llie Flfeel of In al iiieiii on 
I'lusieal I'miierlies." H. |{. MeFarlaiul. Uiillelin oi llie .\iueriraii kail\\a\ 
KiiKiiueriiii,' .\ssiiiialioii. \'i' 17. \ii. 1S4. lelini,ir\ 1'>1(>. i',). 2M I'l"- . 
Fit;s. 15,V Tal.les 11. 

'■ Fesi lit ( )n l;oii I'ir I'iliiii; ( 'iim|)aral ive Tests im I'naled and I ■ninali il 
Ores^on I'ir Piliiiu to Deierniine the IClfeet of ■rnaltiient 1,1011 1 al IVo- 

IMTties." II. H. .Ml l-arlaiiil. Hiilletin of the .Xnieriean kailwav ,ini eriii- 

A.ssoriatioii. \iil. \(,. \,,. \()H. August 1'>14. I'])- 47 I5(l. I'aliles U. 
Fiji's. 7,^ 

"(nosoliiiv; Douglas I'ir l!riili;e Slriiii;ers wiilioni l,,,ss of Stnialli." 
(). I'. M. Coss. Assoeialion of Cn'osntiim ("oiri.anies of ilie I'aiilie Coast. 
V]>. 21. ! liatjrams <». Tallies 7. Seattle, 1910. 

■'('aii.iili.ui WiM.ds for Sinicllir.il Tiinliers." I )e,iarltiieiit of tju liUerior, 
Canada, l"orestr\ Mraiicli Miilletin .><>. II.. \. Fee. l',i-44. I'Is. XIX Fii;s. 
,V r.ilile> 5. Ottawa, 1<>1 7. l-"ree iiiion .ipplieatioii. 

"Merhaiiii-al Properties of Woods C.mwii in the Fiiited States." Inind 
St. lies i)e|>artnie 11 of A^'riciiUiire Hiilletin 5>(). J. .V. Newliu ,uiil Flioinas 
K, C, Wilson. I',i. 47. Tables,?. Pis. 111. W.isliiii,..ion, 1<>1 7. 



T^^^Pl!^ feF:^ ■• '^^m 



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.100 



■-lililliiH .11. 11, 11, I, „,i|, ,i„ 1,^,1, 

l»( III. Il ..I itilili |., ,,ujr. 111. I 

"I 'I"' i""-" I 111 pLiiii- 

I imhi. I.iiii III. ..I i4,|,i„ !„,„, 

Illr "I f llliKi' U'liiu 



K.kImI 



'uunil^. 



I'liiiii.N 



l«v 


JI7 


l«9 


2IM 


IM 


IM 


i;s 


167 


IKI 


1(4 


102 


IM 


l».l 


isu 


W 


Ion 


I9« 


11.5 


ISO 


1-7 


15K) 


IM. 


IM 


l'(7 


17J 


lOH 


IW 


.'IK, 


202 


lai 


171 


i»» 


17» 


IN2 


167 


i«i 


172 


.'17 


1!I5 


li.l 


Id! 


17 1 


IKJ 


1'.' 


IKV 


174 


175 


IXII 


IKQ 


207 


w 


102 


.'14 


iiix 


i;'( 


21'> 


l.H'> 


JOO 


HKI 


21.1 


167 


IS,I 


IfS 


l«l 


IW 


214 


17o 


ivo 


I.HI 


21M 


m. 


18-. 


1, 1 


l,i< 



K.1.II..I I. .11,1 

I lUl 



IIMi 



IM 



452 
.MA 
47.1 
i29 

,t»7 
2HII 
(.10 
III! 
105 

-'4(1 
Wl 
142 
115 
.152 

.i5» 
Ml 
III 
.112 

.171) 

2»5 
J52 
155 



.114 
411 

2')4 
,142 

J65 

.1.1,1 
i57 
IW 
114 

44U 
44U 

(5« 



465 

4111 



|i», 
II I 
."'(, 
Iim 
17') 

I'H 
i.'l 
Hi. 
JSi, 



127 
21(0 
41 = 
41.' 
441. 

I,H0 
.l(,,l 
I4U 
14 I 

i07 

171 
151 



401 
14 = 
,1,15 
411 
4lli 



41 

411 
4l>4 

.171 



\"l.i [ I r -In. „,^, 

,'"■."■ , '■■"'.I'-ll' Ill 

-111- Ik 11,' l| . . ■M.||U..I..||.,-.| 

"( K ■ .:., 1. .Inn. i.-,..i.. 

I. ...Mil 111 

. ..Itllllll,,. 

I..,~,l,.,l 

..".. I Ki.liil 1.1,,.,., 

>..li„.„ ] I uM. 



II II 

III I 



111 H 

■ 1 = 

!.' I 

I I '. 

II 7 

12 1 



11, / 

II II 

I 1 1 

II I 
M I, 

III - 



III V 

II n 

III 4 

I'l t 

111 I 



4 '. 
4 f. 



4 I 
i I 



I i 

I I 

I i 

1 i 



.H 5 
H < 



1 i 
H II 



. 1 
I I 



.1- .WtKM.KS. .\M1 Hh N|UK Ul.lf\i,l> I Hi i.M 



\\1 It \(.l..- I'l l< 1 i \ I 



-22 i -16 9 j ~ii 1 ! -50 -24 •» 



-U 6 



-20 



-Jl-O 



I - ,11 I 



0th 
I eristics 

"P 
I'orcst 
Pis. Ill 

"F 
and Sti 
UuUctir 

"i: 

I 'nitcd 
I'rothir 

"J 
I'orest 
I'ls. VI 

"S 
Agricul 
4. \\V 

t'rcscn 
J86. I 
1915. 

•"I 
I ntri'a 
I'hysic. 
Ilngiiu 
I igs. 1 

< 'rc'gdi 
iiertics 
Associ; 
I igs. 7 
"( 
(). F. 
I'i). 27 

( aiiiul 



Slates 
K. C. 



^m^Ts^jM'^^'^^sm 



1. KMMH 
..II \irn;hl 
i-K Irv ..1 



lAHI.l- 11 \\KI\:in\(j( \IIIH\\|i\l \Ni> r ' -li \l I'l'lll'IK 
\\ I K \. .1.^ I ii|< I III i \-l ■•< M \;<s i,!.:'.\, ; I l\ ^1 . 1 -.-I 



■^r 



I" 
111. I. 



I'r..|» 



M..i.iiir. 
« omi iH 
I..I-.-.I..,, 

«.-l<lH ..1 

" I«Imii 

. N. i; .Ir-, 



l-il.r, 

.11 siri-v. ,.. \l<,.',il,.. M...li,lii 

olilnii' tli-'i ..! .,i 

.» III'!! Illllll, 'il|i!lirc, .i.l-tli II 

I'll tlr\ [HT ^qii.in iitr^iii.irt i.iTM[ii.. 

Jirh. .11. h. 111. Ii 



I I.. 11.1,1... ,.. - 
..r -]»■, Mil. I' 



1.. 

1 .MlllillU 
!...!. I 



null, 
r Mni.iri' 



I'. r..|.i {■.r,, 



111. Ii 
I I- 



... h 
■iii.l- 



ii.; 

Uiil 



■)i 



I (1 

1 4 

•< 4 



7 I 
" I 



41 
41 



54 • 

J I > 
]l I 



, 1 ■ 



t."l 
• -'t 



lii(, 
4.H 





Of, ' 




.111.; 




.v-i.! 




4'l- 




-114 




1 -1 




ii.i4 




IJ- 




l'»i 




■-41 




^'(1 




JIJ 




44.| 



1 I..H 
.^ 4i'l 

4 17- 
4. 'mi 
I i|.' 
l.l'.i 

4 I'l; 



MKl 

lUl 



1. 



1 = 



1 71- 

I.I.V7 


1 .051 


*,691 
1 ag.1 
/1, 455 
t «M 
l.«3 



1 mil 
1 174 
l.Mo 



ii.M 


1 4.'.7 


.imi 


i 4«4 


5..I 


1 4.'4 


M.- 


J|.-» 


v'J 


1 4-. 


5- - 


i ;>■. 


44 = 


: -4= 


t" 


! '4S 



I 111 

II .14 



I iHi 

II '11 
II 74 



'1 , 
7 4 



l.ill 
Ii^ll 



'i.'d 
4H 



(ilW 



'.II 

1411 



: 



Nv-! F .- I-i^t^!■'■^ ^ir ■ ; U'T ■ 



^ IJ IT 4 M 41 



' 4 i>^ 



I I'l'lll'IK III s niKlUdllul I nil. I i \. ,! l; ■)! \ I, I'll \. I KKK OF ('()-■> ■ !l. 'i,|,\^HK 
^1 ' 1— ~l\ 1. I Ml !< I iinr lliiM-, I f iMI'U i-|\,, I 111 1 \ 1 Iki \!1 Kill WTAi i il\.,lll 



( oniprr.-iuii p.ir illfl ti 



( ..iiilirr»^n»n 
ju r|M[i'tit lllar 



s|„.,i;„,c |...r.,ll,l 



-iMHlk.O 



Mn.lt 


luv 


i; 


rk lit 
^liiiK 
l.i-li. 


MlltllT Ml 

.irnp ..I 
51 7'1I 


(' .1 




C n:-iuMC 


\I... 


nil,. 


1 .i,iipir-M 


|»T -1 


,,r,. 


1- r 
~pi . 


1. ..1 


..iiiMii^; 
.,.„„,l.-..- 
I,nl;,n ..1 


h 

1 


l.il. 

>>|i,..i- 
.li 


Miuii' |...,.!, 
■.:i-'l'l 


rl,i-l 
p.T - 


1 il\ . 
In.ir, 


IllMlI. 

|..r »c|i,.,r. 
III. h. 



....! ... itiil.i-.l . 

11 I. ,|.h..r. it -t. I I T.. 
-'.,.11 i'- .L.tnii- "r 



Lint.' ■•' li l-iil 
^nrl .. . -i,r-.i. . 



-iln-iitti^ 'In-tt^tlt 

I" ' -'|ii.iri. in. h. 

tli|. i.l.iit. ..1 

t.iiUir.. I.fiii.^'. 



''iilit ttti;; -ir.ii^ili 
|i|.r iiti li 'it ui.lt li 
..1 vi.<(iiii..n 
I tti. Ii, , I. .11^ 
th. |.|in,. ..I 
.■.itliir, 1..-IIU. 



r..i:i;. ilti.l K.I 



1 III.. .1 -lirtnl..iKf 



I.>i-;l, . iih \-,hii. 

p. r - 11 , . h. 'li. IP. It! nri...|i p. 

.1,. i.l, .1 -lin.tk.i^. ..V. i; .Irv . ,.ii,liti..n 

l.iilnr. |.. -y, 1r..:ii cP. 1. I..I-. 'I ..ii i;r..«.|i 

P...M It .lt\ .1 .t...i..ii- 



..!..! r.iiit. mi,, 



I.IHill 


1... It 






1 


iHllilHl - 

1 .;^i 


p.,.i,„N 


III. h. - 


r.mi.l- 
^ |.:ill 


.i 'lip 1 


1 ^p< 


.: .' 1 


'1 


■.Jl'l 


4 . J.<-1 1 


1 'in 


1 i: 


Jl 


^ .Sri 


1 i.M 


1 'I'l: 


_' i'j 


22 


V It'l 


l,li7J 1 


1 'Hk, 


: 4i 


,1 


< >(lll 


4 :ti. ! 


1 7*7 


: 51 


I'' 


i ^74 


4 4Jl 1 


l..^U 


_' *.'. 




V (. : > 


1 4li. 1 


1 . '<,.^7 


1 ■>(. 


1 ; 


< in 


i I'i'j ; 


. '»..'" 


_' 2\ 


,'l 


. iiji 


1 iMiv : 



41' 
744 



' .',i 


!.•< 


1 5.) 

_' 111 

' TP 
.' 1.'. 


17 



1 '}'* 

1 4J 
I '15 



4 



1 ',(i; 
; ;ip 



4,17 
44.S 
I5\ 



\2 
1 1 


_ ^S'l 


1 ii > 
; J 4., 


1 vi 
■ 5ii) 


4-1 
<4. 


12 


_' '0,^ 


i .".' . 




IIU. 


1 ! 


J,'.!J 


t .411 


1 41'i 


4. '4 


1.5 


• r.>'l 


; Jim 


1,4.11 


4 7,- 


'- 






1 V 




\; 


' 7.^^ 


■ ;KI- 


1 4i. 


4.1: 




: 4'i7 


. ,p.> 


1 ^5 1 


4115 


14 


J IHI'I 


t .-pj 


1 Hill 


Ip.) 


17 


i 440 


4 7.40 


1 hOl 


4'>7 



441 
11 = 
l.'t 



121 
1; J 
44; 



4'14 
4,1,< 



411 

.SI. 4 



4'fll 

4S.S 
.507 

47'> 

4,-4 
4l.'> 
414 



417 
4=.| 



4P.'; 
4.4.x 
45p 
4.<4 



44-' 
5iH 
4»f> 
5!; 



^41 
Sl'l 



s.n 

.«(i4 



Sl- 
im 



175 
\si 

IW 
IK4 

!p7 



l'l,« 
lt») 
174 
1 i 

-MiS 

1>1, 
l')4 
I'Jl 

177 

1*1 



,!4- 
,41.4 

.47,: 

4.'7 
.4411 

4p: 
4:11 



H 
44- 



i'l I 



.??^I95IEE? 








WF~^y<-^?%t'.k 






y^^W 



•*i»' 



^fcp«3 



ilr 



^ ;.»•;• A: 



W 



'..:^''-' 



4^;^i- 



TABLE li.-VAl lATlC 



U..I1 Ni. 



I liight 

trnin 

ground — 

flit. 



Stump 
\ .1.1,1 li 
( 

1) 

K 



II. 

I. 

J.. 

K 

I. . 

\r. 
\ 



K 

s. . 



Ak.- 
yoiir] 



HI 
l.S 



26 



J4 



42 

50 



58 

6(> 
74 



S2 



\' 


90 


\v. 




.\ 


<JS 


^■ 




/. 


UK) 


.V. 




li' 


114 


(.' 




D' 


122 


K' 




K' 


i.W 


C 




11' 

r 


1,?8 


r 


UO 


K 




1 


\>i 


M 




.Vvtra^ifs 





14.i 
141 

l.<4 
i25 

117 



112 

10.' 



Averagt' 

Diameter 

inches. 



AveraKf Fibrr l.eat^tli M-Hiin, tor 



Annual Ring D«ii.{n.itiun. 



165 
162 
160 

IS,*! 
154 

15,» 
151 
147 



i6S 



27 5 

270 
'25 5 
25 

24-0 
24-0 

2.(5 
25 
21-5' 



1 15 

l^Si 



1 li> 



21 
20-8 

20 
i9 

is'o 



, 170 

i 'i5-5 



14 5 



11-5 



2 W 

,i 52 

.i U7 

2 57 
2-60 

i-2s 

111 
12') 



U 



< Ij 

4 .iS 



4 33 



4- 10 



1 U 



1 81 



4 50 

'415 

■4 42' 
4 4>» 



3-S5 
3 43 
3 30 



2-27 
i 20 

1 06 
90 



3-67 

3 97 



5-26 



5 12 



5 26 

4 w' 

5 06 
4 81 



5 02 
5 15' 
489' 



'4 is' 



3 18 
1-95 
94 



0H7 
1 04 



3 30 



3 89 



I 



3 61 

4 76 

4 68 

5 11 

'5'34' 
5'42' 

.5 60 

'5'75' 



kuinS JUT Itith. 



Stick Numbers. 



1 anil 2 



4 In 

4-:, 

5-,w 
's'l.i' 
h'l!. 



3-66 

4-23 



5 4.i 



.( • 20 
4 71 



i>4 



5 50 5 

5 »5 I 
5 7» i' 5 



5 20 

'5-07' 
4-80 



5-38 



4 46 

4 il 
4l)3 

2 89 
2 30 



1 (K) 
99 

4 20 



5-.il I 5-80 
S-'-' ' 0-oi 



5-:" j 5-91 
$■.,;' I 5 84' 
Soil 6 OS 



5'.:" 

s'li' 



5 62 
5-23 



3 ■ 25 

4 41 



5 29 



5-70 



6 02 
5 94 



6 



5'>2 ; 6 0") 
'5-82 i"5-35 



54 I 

• . I 

/.> I 

W) 



5-56 

5-55' 



5-I'- ! 5-43 .'17 
4 , i j 5 22 : 4 90 

4 7'.. 5-11 ! "5-56 

I 
I 

4 ('• 5 0.-* I 

■i .' 5 13 ! 5-20 



5-31 



271 



4 f 



5-00 

4 37 



5 32 



5 14 

4 96 

5 32 



5 61 
5-56' 



5 91 

'5-79 



31 



5 88 



5 05 I 5 

4'87 ! 4 



XI I 5-66 



507 I 5 17 
5 40 5 48 



NoTK: — Tf'^t clicks .irc numt-iTed friin 
.\nniial riufc .i*'Sik.naTim niimlwrs 
KJijiires t'^en frir (ui^tit tnini ^r.; 



|.ilh iimaril* the ixTiiiliirv of I'll- tree in accordanc. .mi h the scheme »hiiwn in ri>; 42 (Appemhx!. 
.i\i ^u.ee>;-.ive |)crin,H <.f 2() year in the Kruwth <j| ll 're. No, U bei.i« thel.isi annii.il nni; ..1 I ne 
.ine, .iveraji Ji.iMieier, and lihre 1. mlh. refer li> the 1 .■! the b'.lt indii.iled. 



.? and ' I 5 and 6 7 and 8 ' .md 

I 10 



8 
8-9 
80 

6-7 

7-3 
6-8 
7 6 
7-9 
7-9 

7 1 

7 X 

9 1 
9.0 
9 5 

10 ! 
9 5 
9 8 
<< 1 

1(1 5 

9 " 
10-4 
111 

11 
111 

95 
9-9 

10 0' 
10 5 



8 


10-9 1 


8-5 


10-9 


8 5 


11-8 


9 


12 5 


10-3 


121 1 



14 

15 

1> I, 

10 



10 9 12-3 

12 3 15 6 

11-5 I 15-8 

U 1 I 16 



13-3 
14 (I 
14 3 

14 1 

13 5 

13 6 
141 
14-3 
14-8 

15 9 

15 8 

16 8 
17-3 
16-8 
18 

18 
17-5 

17 

16 4 

15 3 

15-4 

17 

16 9' 

17 3 

16 5 
1.'* 1 
18-9 
18-9 
18-8 

19 T 



181 

18 6 

19 8 

20 9 

19 9 

18-5 

21 1 

20 7 
200 
178 

20 S 
20 .1 
20 7 

22 5 
19 

213 
17 5 

19 3 

20 3 



14 t) 

16 ,5 
18 U 

17 2 



170 


15 3 


17 3 


16 8 


17-8 


15 8 


18 1 


173 


IX 3 


17 (1 



20 

IH 

20 
20 
I') 11 



18 11 
J2 ,) 
22 II 



18 S 



n 

.tii< 
12 



n II 
1; -1 



.Ml slieka 111 the s,ime odd. and ne.\t hiijher -v 
eripher\ 'I he tTie.i';iire''ient f.irthi I fr^^m h* i" 



VAl lATlON OF MECHANICAL AND I'HYSilCAl. HKOPEklltS FROM THE PITH TO THl I'KRirHEHV OK A TYi'lCAl. I REE OF COAST DULi.I.AS FIR AVERAGES 1 ■ TESf ^ITCK-i Al IN 11 



n 

1^ 



11 
i; 



-umnicr-W'jod — jK-r cent. 



Mick NunilxTs. 



1 and 2 



2i 
17 
4U 
i\ 

ii 
IV 
21 
_»> 
20 

22 
2i 
IK 
19 
21 

21 
l* 
17 
IM 
20 

21 

IX 
17 
17 

IK 

l.S' 



18 
19 

21 
19 

20 
20 
21 

21 

21 
22 
.^11 



3 am) 4 



.15 
42 
Ml 

iS 

.)5 

.is 

J 5 
35 

32 

32 

27 
2« 
30 

29 

2(1 



2(1 



21 



24 



22 
23 



23 

24 

2.^ 
23 
24 

25 

24 
24 
24 



M 



S and 6 



38 
38 
37 
39 

36 
33 
33 
37 

32 
30 
34 
31 
31 

a 

30 
28 

2M 
30 

32 
29 
2b 
27 
26 

25 
23 



24 
24 
24 

25 
24 



je 



7 and 8 



37 
39 
3.S 
37 

39 
34 
35 
38 
A3 

33 
35 
32 
34 

34 

38 
33 
32 
32 
32 

33 
30 
28 
30 
29 

28 

28 



9 

and 
10 



35 
41 
39 

38 

43 
30 
38 
41 

35 

37 
38 
33 
41 
30 

34 



11 
and 

12 



4! 
3H 
44 



4U 



Mni.'-turt ContiMii based on wi-ijiht \vf...r| ,,\vn dr\' i 
iter cent. 



1 and 2 I 



31-3 

30 4 
29 3 

28 9 

2* -2 

28 2 
28-4 
.)0 1 
3»1 

31 1 
.!0 2 
29- 7 

29 (I 

29. 8 



30 

27- 
26 

IT , 

27- 

29 

2S' 
28 
28 
28 



33 



37 



41 



2* 1 

28 5 

29 6 
29 9 

.Kl-O 
29-7 
290 

28 7 
28-5 

27-8 

29 
29 8 
29 2 

J9 1 



Siiek .Numbers. 



.•n.l 4 5 .iiid (I 7 and 8 '« ..iifl Ulj 



■^(n-t itu ' ir.ui*> . <.\cn ilry, bj.<)d t-n Vffltiiiie uhiri fr^ud 



Stick -Nurnlters. 



30 (I 
30 7 

29.7 

29 I 

28 4 

27 9 

28 6 

29 6 
.(0 4 

30 2 

30 1 

28 7 

29 2 
;2-0 

29 7 
27 4 
27 1 

27 6 
27-9 

29 (I 

28 7 

29 (. 
28-5 
28-2 

28-3 

28-7 

■ 2<i : 2 
29 5 

29 ' 
29.', 
28 4 

28 5 
28 5 

2S3 

31 7 
3') • 8 
3^ ■ 1 

» 5 



2') 4 
28 I, 
28 .8 



11 ■ 2 
28.x 
29 « 

29 3 

28 7 

28. 6 

28.7 

28. 7 

29 2 
2ft 9 
27 1 

27 ' 
27.1 

28 I) 

28 6 
27 9 
27 6 
27 9 

29 

38-. 

38 • 3 
43 5 



30 2 

28-6 
28. 8 
28 1 

27. 8 
26 7 
26 9 
28 6 
30. 3 

291 
•AO 5 
41 4 
440 
44 6 

32 
.19 1 
47 4 
40 2 

29. 7 

53 5 
50 7 
53 (i 
44 6 
52 f. 

50 1 

387 

66-4 
79 4 



39. 7 ; 

44. 4 |. 

43 7 I 

50 1 1. 

59. J ! 

S4 r i. 



ill 4 



44 

(.1 
Tl 
til 



;< 4 



11 








.uld 


1 and 2 


3 and 4 


5 and 6 


12 






- - 


i2 9 


35(1 


II 412 


468 


2" 4 


Ij i>9 


407 


441 


-■<2 t 


0. 165 


421 


44li 


74 


i(.9 


n 40.S 


II 445 



o iol ' 

.i63 

0..i4K I 

o .i44 

i46 ! 

346 I 

0..i46 i 

0-351 I 
ll.35i 

I). 354 I 



415 
II 418 
II 412 
492 
399 

II 39« 

(|.,i9(, 

II.39S 
396 
II 3H3 



0351 I 39(, 

0-.i49 i ,i92 

II.35U 1 (1.391 

II 357 I i. .i90 

365 l|..i.H9 



360 
(I iol 
361 
0-358 
366 

398 
II 385 

367 
0.379 

0372 
0-377 
» 381 
381 
.i91 



(1385 
(|.,i84 
377 
379 
0-381 

0.,i95 
0-400 

0-393 
0-396 

0-397 
0-.392 
(I 390 \ 
0-394 ; 
0-.i90 \ 

0-387 j 0-388 I 

394 , U 383 j 
11.401 11-391 
0-394 385 ' 



33 >* 



40 1 



S3 J 



3M 



■ and 8 



(I 4o4 
II 448 
II 441 
II 44' 



9 

anil 
10 



4H4 

165 

45i, 

II t(i{ 



(1 13) 43(1 I 467 

11 437 t32 j o 4()S 

4ii I 42s 403 

0-420 j (I tl8 I 147 

426 (I 410 1 (1 410 



421 
0-420 
O 412 
412 
405 



i 



II .i9i) ! 

0-.i93 ; 
0-.i9(. i 
395 
393 

395 

II ,i95 

(I 395 
(I 396 
(I 402 

400 
395 

I 
0-392 I (I 
0-.i81 I 



(I 417 ! 

412 I 

414 I 
40<» 

() Mfi ! 

(19 I 

403 t 
11-4117 
0-409 
0-419 

398 I 
11-4113 I 
0-.i97 
(I 398 
II 405 

I) ■ 405 
0-412 



II 441 

435 

418 

11 4IM 

II 421 

II KHi 
II 402 
(I 414 



It 

and 
12 



II 5, it I 

n 5ll'i 

II 49: 

(I 17^ 

l=iri 



Static llt-iidiiiK 
libri-^iii^- laslic Liniil I'mih' 



Stick Niimbi-ts 



.i(<8 
i74 



I .111.1 2 



9 3th i 



0-385 
(1-380 
(1 374 
0-357 
360 








... I 


.549 


- - 






1 

1 

" ' i 


405 


u 


415 


440 


4<»2 



I ,tn>l 



i.olii 
,v7|ll 



i 210 



: 4 is: 

! 3|o4il 



I 
5 anil 6 7 and 8 [ 



4 i"il 
4 111 = 
I ;ii. 

I !■- 
4.4-'- 
4,i|ii- 
1 Jo 

4 .'"'- 

4, 74 - 
4,20^ 
t, 31' 
3 '17^ 
4.0, ■ 

4,4Mi 
3.201 
4,21 ■ 
3 , .SI, , 
l.IlT^ 

3,o'H 

i.OMi 

3. 01 = 
,i 07, > 
4.24.' 

4.7 
I, 41, 



ill'' 
3.0'HI 
i Or, I, 
4,10" 

3,01-. 

4,4x' 
1 I'll 
4 Ji.i' 



5,320 
4,790 
4,832 
4, "71 

5.283 
5,4fiO 
5 , 303 
4,982 
5.443 

4.o5^ 
5,071 
4.927 
4,930 
4.944 

4,63 i 
4.59(1 
4.407 
4,440 
4,2411 

4.072 
4 2113 
4,0411 
3 , 80 1 
4,1'0 



4 03 i 1 
4,044 i 
4.911 I 
5, Itll , 

5,2i7 
5, i45 

5 271 I 
5 Jo3 I 

5. ill5 ' 

5 142 ; 

4.057 I 

5. ill7 , 

5,1511 ■ 
5, 127 



t,2Jll 
5. dill 



5,1'' 

4.;r, 



3 670 



4.KSI i 4,21111 

4,72' I 5,1 lo 

I 

3.958 I 3,0(5 
3.8115 ! i 72' 

3,675 I 

3,040 , , 

3,645 : 

3.693 ' 

4,I5,>. j 

3, iOII i 



4 480 4. 8911 



I O' 

' lo 

I '1 - 



iijht r \en iitil:ilH,T liein^ at the same distance from the pith. 

m hi r<nph»rv is in evi-i->- case for ihe lirsi .miio.il rinv; nt-xi the pith n-c'.irdU- 



<,f whethf-r this lia 



rtU-r of duidile-dccadcs fr,iiii the iieriplu-ry nr not 



iMii (,|.A>, HR AVER.^OES FOR lOT STICKS AT INTERVALS OF 2| INCHES FROM THE PITH FOR SI CESSIVE FOUR-FOOT BOLTS COMPRIStVC THE ENTIRE MERCHANTABL 



Ml!!' tttl 


M llSlClj, 


l-'il)ri- Stress at 1 


^t.itic Ucnding 
' istii Limit I'oundi per S< 


. Imh. 


M 


oduluA of 


Static Bending 
Rupture — Poundt per S|. In 


.h. 


VI, „ 


Static Bending 
ulimii.' Klaitidty 1,000 lln 


per St). 1 


mh. 


Work til Eljut 


s 

ic L 








Mick Numbers. 










Stick Numben. 








Stick Numbcrt. 










St 


1) 

.LIWI 

H) 


M 

.III'! ; 1 Am\ 2 

IJ ; 

S.iO 

II 511'' 

II 4'*.' .i.ltlu 

U 475 

1) 15(1 3, 64(1 

.i,7Ul 

i.ilHI 

<.21l) 

' 1 


3 .and 4 

3^866 
4.094 
4,.»0S 
4,593 

4,438 
4,459 
4,908 
4.265 
4,200 

3,743 
4,265 
4,315 
3,975 
4,672 

4,480 
3,200 
4,213 
3,867 
4,073 

3,694 
3,670 
3,945 
3,975 
4,242 

4,707 
4,463 


^ .inrl 6 


7 and 8 


o 

and 

10 


11 
and 
12 

3^740 
4,725 
5.172 
5.2.50 


1 anil 2 


3 and 4 


5 and 6 


7 and 8 


9 

and 

10 


11 

and 
12 

' ^.«.;' 
7,220 
8,020 

8,075 




1 ,iiid 2 

; , 376 
1 . 2110 

1,172 

: i(KI 

,226 

1 , 337 


3 .ind 4 


5 and 6 


7 an.l 8 


9 

and 
10 


11 

ami 

12 


1 anil 2 


3 and 4 


5 J 




5 i20 

4 . 790 
4,,Vt2 
4,971 

5.283 
5.460 

5 , 303 
4,9>I2 
5.443 

4,1.58 
5 1)71 
4. '127 
4 9,i6 
4.944 

4,633 
4, 590 
4 407 
4,4+0 

4,2411 

4,072 
4.203 
4,040 
3,894 
1,1.59 


"4!6.i.'( 

■ 4,'H4 
4,911 
5,330 

5,237 
5,.H5 
5,271 
5,263 
5,. 105 

5,142 
4.657 
5,307 
5,150 
5,127 

5.1'., 
-.. 25 
4.220 
5,030 
5,025 

5,1.58 
4,747 
4,740 
4,440 


4,657 
5 , 198 
4,813 
5.515 

5,498 
5.263 
5,(>40 
4,725 
5,545 

5,850 
5,025 
5.3,56 
5,890 
5,356 

5,780 


6!26<l 
5,6'>0 


6!275' 
7,188 
6,943 
7,250 

6,805 
7,318 
7,317 
6,880 
6,780 

6,639 
6,690 
7,025 
6,950 
6,988 

6.820 
6.8W 
7.278 
6,683 
6,840 

6,727 
6,690 
6,475 
6,480 
7,000 

7 , 250 
7,420 


'8!i45' 
8,097 
7,864 
7 , 598 

7,740 
8,380 
8,00t, 
7,699 
7,710 

7,400 

7,774 
7,870 
7,485 
7,420 

7,310 

7..5o; 

7,2,13 
7,195 
7,090 

6,853 
6.968 
6,987 
6,880 


8^066 
7,654 
7,7.19 
7.968 

7,680 
7,8.54 
7,644 
7,521 
7,497 

7,883 
7,. 545 
7,670 
7,460 
7 , 803 

7,650 
7,703 
7.490 
7,425 
7,660 

7,280 
7,133 
6,813 
6,242 


/ 

7 , 795 
7.973 
7,795 
7,720 

8,410 
8,420 
8.100 
8,020 
8,220 

8,148 
7,647 
7,760 
8,. 120 
8,280 

7,820 








4»4 

II 411.5 
IP 456 
II t(i3 

II 4(i7 
468 


1,149 
1 .663 
1,618 
1,589 

1,552 
1,529 
1,511 
1,490 
1,524 

1.533 
1,600 
1,512 
1,547 
1,458 

l,.386 
1,602 

1,.508 
1.479 

1 ,483 

1,431 

1,482 
1,430 
1,355 
1,352 

1,304 
1,475 


1,642 
1.764 
1,807 
1 71(9 

1 , ;w) 

1,693 
1,744 
1,676 
1,70* 

1,639 
1.666 
1,648 
1,568 
1,561 

1,527 
1,566 
1,.S56 
1,517 
1,454 

1,477 
1,455 
1,-521 
1,460 
1,268 

1,309 
1,500 


1,713 
1,714 
1.66.1 
l,ft88 

1,648 
1.653 
1,654 
1,6.34 
1,621 

1,668 

1,64.S 
1.642 
1,669 

1,588 

1,652 
1,601 
1.474 
1.613 
1,623 

l.(!4 
1.518 
1,447 

1.388 

1,230 
1,460 


1 , 553 
1 , 797 
1 , 760 
l,70t. 

1,772 
1,789 
1.782 
1 , 740 
1,684 

1,713 
1,71, 
1,667 
1 , 703 
1,658 

1.633 


1,373 
1.714 
1.817 
1.711 


53 

61 
65 
47 
47 


61 

56 
64 
0-74 

71 
73 
89 
68 
65 

52 
0-63 
69 

0-57 
83 

81 
.15 
66 
0-57 
63 

0.53 
51 

61 
65 
74 

96 
0-75 


U 

u 
u 
u 


{ 


II 463 

II 447 




6,070 


( 


II 446 

II 4tl 

II 435 





5,7.10 
5,760 


1 


1 


11 41.S 








ll-4m 








II 124 










( 


II 4111) 






1 


II 4112 













II 414 










* 

1 










7 , 2.50 




1,517 







. . , . . 




II 4211 


5,720 






I 
I 




























6,805 








( 




4,184 


4,200 








6,830 
6,994 


6,822 
7,670 












( 






4,157 


4 , 725 


5,146 






6,576 










72 


( 


















3^640 


3,760 
3,667 

3,685 
3,690 
3, "66 
4,169 
3,616 

4,485 
4,180 
4.20O 

4.n. 


; , ')5S 
i,s05 

^,075 
3,t40 

3 (45 
.!.093 
4,158 

; , 300 

4 480 


3.945 
3,725 








5,.5«) 
6,360 

6,, 540 
6.380 
6,3.55 
6. 658 
6.179 

6.869 
6.702 
6.537 

,,. 

*,7M 


6.313 
6,540 

6,338 
6,407 
6.. mi 
6.315 
5,950 

5.338 


6 , 830 
6,. 1.50 






1 :'i7 

1 271 


1,359 
l,.30t 

1,365 
1,325 
1,188 
1,311 
1,251 

1,196 
1,238 
1,295 

1.433 


1,313 
1,332 

1,330 
1,314 
1,304 
1.252 
1.221 

1 051 


1.469 

1 , 358 






0^57 


58 
58 

0-55 
58 
1) 75 
0-74 
58 

94 
079 
76 

067 


i 








6,620 












































' 


It 






















( 






























< 




4,200 










1 




■ 






6.880 















"2 
59 






4.890 


5,330 


4,720 


6.200 


7 IM 













1,700 


t,U* 




440 


492 


3,670 


7,440 


7,980 


7.470 


1,507 


I,SM 


• 



<'rijilirr\ i)t not. 



HANTABLE LENGTH OF THE TREE. 



Static Bending 
to EUtti< Limit -Inrh ilw. ih i u. Inch. 



Stick Number*. 



5 and 6 



74 
0-83 



66 

fcl 



58 



7aiidl* 



II 70 
(to 
ill 
W 

() '>J 
O V6 
M4 
94 
0-97 

0-88 
(1 7,1 
U >>S 
89 
92 

88 
(I 84 
67 
U 88 
0-87 

92 

(IM,J 

y-88 

80 



U 80 
I 01 



59 

57 



9 

.M.I 

III 



>' in 

.1 .H4 
.1 7.t 
I IHI 

'I 95 
.I87 
'1-80 
11-72 
I OJ 

1 12 

n-!ii 
.) 96 
1 li 
.1 % 

1 1,1 



and 
12 



58 
0-72 
82 
II 90 



Static Bending 
Work to M.ix. Load Inch II. k [ht Cii. Inch. 



Stick Numbrra. 



I and 2 .1 .in.t 4 5 ami 6 i 7 ,u)d H 



4 5 

4 5 

5 1 
4 1 
J 8 



« 7J 



« U 



«4 



• 76 



1 i 



5 4 



7 



5 9 
7 

6 .1 

7 9 

4 8 

4 8 

6 9 

8 4 
70 

5 
5 9 

7 
7 .1 
71 

6-1 



4-7 

(I 9 

6-6 
8 2 

5 II 
6-7 

6 2 



7 
6 4 



6 4 



8 

6 7 

7 .( 

5 9 

6 7 

8 1. 

8-5 

7 6 
7 9 

6 5 

6 9 
88 

7 

6 7 

7 1 
(I 7 

71 
6 8 

6 7 
65 
8-4 

7 
7 6 

7 1 
5 6 



S .i 



6 5 

5 6 

7 .1 
7 4 

7-6 
7 

6 9 

6 .1 

7 1 

I. 8 
(I 6 
7 4 
7-5 
SI 

65 
81 
9 ,1 
7 6 



5 9 

« 

5 9 

3 



7-9 
5 6 



9 

und 


10 


6 


f> 


5 


8 


7 


.) 


6 


J< 


7 


4 


11 


) 


4 


4 


/ 


4 


( 






9 


<• 


3 ; 



II 

and 
12 



St iif. Ui-n<lin|{ 
l..lal Work > . 1. M.. p.t t u liuh 



V.iml«;r«. 



1 anil .' 



5 4 



6-7 

5 7 



i * 



t » 



» « 



4 5 



t 7 



.1 and 4 


19 9 
160 

20 8 
28 4 


17-4 
16 2 
16 6 
15 5 

12 7 


11-2 
12-9 
15-8 
11-7 
12 5 


8-9 
12 3 
10 1 
116 

9 


III 

11-2 
7 3 
7-5 
8-8 


11 3 
9-2 


MO 

9 7 


8-5 
83 
6 9 


8-6 


9 2 
9-h 
92 


U 1 



211 ^ 
K. I 

14 H 

15 - 

I. 

i; . 

l^ - 

1' J 

Is '. 

in I, 
M s 

II '' 

III II 
1.' 4 



111 It 



an. I X 



10 8 
14 I 
17 



14 
13 
14 
H 
III 

14 

M ' 

14 
17- 

16 
13 

12 
15 



12 8 
IJ 2 

7 6 



10 9 
14 7 



12 1 
6 1 



9 

iml 

to 



16 5 
13-8 
15 I 
15 II 

22 , 
19-3 

14 9 
I6'6 

15 9 

17.4 
18-5 

16 3 
18 4 
15 4 



10 4 



11 

and 
12 



28 II 
18 5 
16 II 



< 'ompresvion farallcl to T.r.tin 
' rn»hinii str.-nu'h at Man L.ia.l l.li. (ht ■i| Imh. 



Stick Numbei'ii. 



I ami 2 I I ..lid 4 



2.688 1 
2,760 I 
2.946 
3,086 

2,897 
2 , 863 
2.7.111 

>.SSi 

2,683 
2,698 
2,888 
2,815 
2,862 

2 , 893 
2.970 
2,945 

2 , 880 
t,lM5 

2,987 
3,033 
3.069 
3,IW8 
3.01M 

3,2119 
3,242 



3,. 192 
3,4<I6 
3,5tK. 
3,429 



' anil (1 



4,175 

4,(155 
4.111 
4,(W1 I 



' an.l H 



Q 
anil 

III 



K^.i^ I LO'H 4,040 I 4.652 

3,691 j (,139 I 1,215 ! 4,625 

3, .591 i 4,H6 i 4.171 4.6611 

3,417 I 3 942 ! 3,S33 I 4, Ui.S 

3,413 1. 9111 I 3.911, I iiHi 



3.451 
3.413 

J, 5111 
3,. MM 
3, 181 

3,489 
3,591 
3,718 
3,5.59 
3 , 526 

3 , 508 
3,473 
3,449 
3,404 
3,271 



1 9,13 


4,053 


».l«9 i 


3,864 


3.911 


4.070 1 


3,8,53 


3,'«)i) 


3,895 1 


3,815 


.1 . ,S90 


,1.6,58 i 


3. .113 


3,871 


4 1810 


3 711 


4,113 


3,525 j 


i.XJK 


3,»7I 


3,«1H ! 


,1.831 


1 , 958 


4,11211 


1,70(. 


3. '191 




1.7IM 


4.0.56 


- 



3,745 ' 3.879 

3,721 I 3,,SX8 

3.7,10 I 3,684 

3,731 I 3.586 

3,681 3,7l>4 



3,.)6I 
3,SS2 



2,94<l 
3,057 I 

3,120 I 
3,1IX) 
3,130 I 



3 , 283 

3,379 

3,279 
3,3.56 
3,379 
3,311 
3,242 



3,630 

3,581 



3,290 
3,. 168 



II 8 



US 



U 7 



M'8 



3,248 



3,292 
3,2511 
3.219 
3.121 



3.423 

3,355 

3,219 
3,238 
3.101 
3,088 
2,821 

2.718 



3,. 541 
3 , 7,10 

3,49i 
3,131 



11 

.in. I 
12 



4,103 4,141 4,212 

4,203 4,270 1 4.298 

4,008 4 32.>l 4,318 

4.IM 4,25J . 1 H9| 



I .1411 



i M» i.H^ I 4.120 4 no 



MM 



■^■a 



m'^^^mr^w^z 



-mr-- 



I'l BUCATIONS ISSUED BY THK FORESTRY 



wwm 



(Where number and title Art omitted the document it out at print ) 



Lumber, Squarr Timber, L^ 

Hulpwood. 

( (iMW-tiet Purch.t«e(l. 



th .in<l bhinnirs 



19 and 20.) French edititin unly 



Rullrtin I Tree TUnting on the Prairie*. 

S Korett I'rotlucti of Canada, 1908. 

" 11. Forest l'ro<luctio( Canada, tW>; 

M. Forwt Pro«luii» of Canada, 1">0<>: 

" U. Fore»t I'riKlucts of Canada, 1909, 

" 15. Foreat I'rixJucti uf Canada, 1909. 

(BeinK Kulletinj tl, 12. IJ. 14 
" 16. Foreit Fim and Kailwayt. 
" 22. Foreat Pnxlucti of Canada, 1910: Croaa-tiea. 
" 23. Foreat Frmlucti of Canada, 1910: Timber uaed in Mining Opcr.iiiun*. 

24. Wootl-utinx Induitriti of Canada, 1910: Agricultural Implenu-iiiit and Vedirlt 

Furniture ami Cart and Veneer. 
27 Foreat Producti of Canada, 1910; Cooperage. 
" 29. Tinitier Conditiuo* in the Letter Slave Lake Region. 
" 32. The Turtle Mountain Forett Reaerve. 
" 33. Forett Conditiont in the Rocky Mountalnt Forttt Reterve. 
" 34. Forett Productt of Canada, 1911: Lumber, Square Timber, Lath .mil Shingle-, 
" 35. Fore«t Productt of Canada. 1911: Polet and Crott-tiat. 
" 36. Wood-uting Induttriei of Untario. 
" 37. Forett l'ro«luct» of Canada, 1911. 

(Being Bulletin! 30, 31, 34 and iS.) 
" 38. Forett Productt of Canada, ''".2 Pulpwood. 
" J9. Forett Pro<luttt of Canada, .5! 2: Poles and Tiet. 
" 42. Co-operative Forett Fire Protection. 
" 44. Wood-uting Indiittrict oi the ^'.^r'time Province*. 
" 46. Forest Productt of Canada, 191j: Pulpwood. 
" 47. Forett Products of Canada, 1913: Poles and Crota-tiet. 
" 48. Forett Products of Canada, 1913: Lumber, Lath and Shingles 
" 49. Ireatcd \Vood-blix:k Paving. 

" 51. <jame Preservation in the Rocky Mountains F'orest Reserve. 
" 52. Forest Produc" of Canada. 1913 (Being Bulletins 46, 47. and 48). 
" 53. Timber Conditiont in the Smoky River Valley and Grande-Prairii Count-y. 
" S4. Forest Product* of Canada, 1914: Pulpwood 
" 56. Forest Products of Canada, 1914: Lumber, Lath and Shingles 
" 57. Forest Products of Canada, 1914 (Being Bulletins 54, 55 and SO). 
" 58a, Forest Products of Canada, 1915: Lumber, Lath and Shingles. 

S8b. Forest Products ot Canada, I'MS: Pulpwood. 
" 58c. Forest Products of Canada, IVIS: Poles and Crost-ties. 
" 59. Canadian Woods for Strui tural Timbers. 

" 60. Canadian Douglas Fir: It? Mechanical and Physical Propcrtio. 
" 62a. Forest Products of Canada, 1916: Lumber, Lath and Shingles. 
" 62b. Forest Products of Canada, 1916: Pulpwood. 
" 62c. Forest Products of Canada, 1916: Poles and Cross-ties. 
Circular S. Planning a Tree Plantation for a Prairie Homestead. 
6. PreserNative Treatment of Fence-posts. 
" 7 Manito^'i a Forest Province. 
" S. The Ft>rt3t Products Laboratories. 

" 9. Chemical Meth'xls for Utilizing WcxkI vV'astcs. 

" 11. ' he Relation of Forestry to the Development of the Country.